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Ali Akbar Anabestani, Syed Hadi Tayebnia, Hamid Shayan, Mohammad Reza Rezvani,
Volume 3, Issue 10 (3-2015)

Lack of variations existed in economic settings and a job opportunity is being considered as the most significant characteristics of the rural country’s economic structures. It is argued that occurrence of variations in rural economic activities as an approach, could be considered as an appropriate measure in which most of the development theoricians believe in regarding the mitigation of the negative impacts associated with this mal structure as well as the achievement of sustainable rural development. The major objective of this study deals with identification of main barriers regarding the occurrence of variations in rural economic activities of the bordering villages located in Marivan.
The research method based on the objectives of the study has applied nature. It has descriptive and analytical essence. The statistical society is associated with Marivan which is located in 10 km of Iraq international border. 18 villages were selected as a sample. The sample size based on application of Cochran formula amounted to be 334 households. This study further supports the application of SPSS software for analysis purposes.
This study suggests that barriers toward regional variations could be classified into social, physical, and managerial – institutional ones. However, there is not a drastic difference between all the selected villages from barriers stand points. Generally speaking the barriers are numerous. Based on step wise regression method, managerial institutional, physical, economic and social variables are capable of explaining 88% of the variation. It further suggests that the managerial- institutional structures compare with others are more responsible for lack of variations in rural economic activities.

Sayed Hadi Tayebnia, Soran Manoochehri,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)

Today economists introduce the trade as an engine for development incentive. So, the establishment of border markets is a good strategy to eliminate the created gap of central and border areas. Consequently, what has recently attracted the attention of many development planners is to get rid of current economic and social crises of frontiersmen. These markets compensate for the current weakness of economy within borders. They also prevent border villages from getting deserted. Also, by distribution of development benefits to surrounding areas, border markets create chances for socio-economic development. Addressing this issue from a scientific perspective shows that countries involved in the problems of insecurity in their border region have found that insecurities are due to underdevelopment conditions and their functional consequences. In other words, poverty and hardship in these regions can cause an environment of insecurity and enemies' abuse. Conditions like this can be easily seen in rural areas border of Iran. What is strongly recommended to help security providing in rural areas border is using all the potentials for development of these regions; including promotion of trade through the establishment and expansion of border markets.
The area of study in Khav and MirAbad Villages are located in the west of Marivan, one of the ten counties of Kurdistan in zero point borders with Iraq. In this area, the two factors of distance from the center and low efficiency of agricultural production led to the prevalence of poverty, unemployment, and migration, and the increased tendency to informal activities (contraband), as well. Meanwhile, geographical conditions of the area and consistency of cultural and social conditions with people across the border has provided an appropriate situation for the establishment of border market. Due to the great potentials of cross-border trade together with Bashmaq official customs, border markets of villagers were founded in 1389 to decrease informal activities, improve livelihoods, and decrease the rate of rural-urban migrations. For years, we have focused on the process of economic and social development and anti-deprivation of rural areas of Khav and MirAbad as the gist of the article. Now, in this research, we are going to explain its function and performance. In addition, this research aims to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the process in order to adopt new strategies of problem solving.
Hence, research questions are as follows: 1) has the establishment of new border markets caused economic and social development of surrounding villages? 2) Is there any significant connection between people's satisfaction of current status of the intended markets and their personal intentions such as age, educational level and income dependence on the activities done in the market?
This is an applied research done by descriptive-analytical method. The theoretical part was done using documentary and library studies, while using survey studies in the practical part. Using library method, we have provided some library notes, reports, articles and statistics of related organizations. For field studies of the research we have also used questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Considering the aim of the study, the statistical society of the research consists of two groups of official authorities (chosen from rural related organizations) and rural households settled in 31 residential villages of Khav and MirAbad who have been allowed to operate in the market. Initially applying Cochran formula and then its correcting version we could determine the sample size of rural households of this area, which has a population of 11407 people, 2736 households, and 31 villages according to 1390 census. Finally, a number of 175 households were adopted as sample society so, the number of questionnaires needed was determined.
Then, we have classified villages according to their distance to the border. Maximum distance to Iraq border is 21 KM. Villages of this area are classified in 3 groups of (distant, adjacent, and medium distance areas). From the first class which was consisted of 60% of the villages, 3 villages were chosen. From the other two groups which were consisted of 20% of the villages, we have chosen just one sample from each one. The total 5 villages which include 15% of all, have introduced as samples. Sample villages of each group have been randomly chosen using draw method in respective categories of each village. We have then applied matched sampling to identify the contribution of each village of questionnaires. Questionnaires were randomly distributed among head of the rural households. According to previous studies and regional conditions of the area, the questionnaires have provided in Economic and social dimensions, consisting 5 components of employment, income, living expenses, services and facilities, and social issues and 24 variable to measure the effectiveness of the market in economic and social development of rural areas.
Validity of the questionnaires has been determined by authorities who have been already selected to complete them and experts of similar studies history in the studied area. Its reliability has also been confirmed regarding to the amount of 0.81 as Cronbach's alpha coefficients calculated in SPSS software. Analyzing the information obtained was done by the use of Wilcoxon test and Spearman and Kendall correlation coefficient.
Discussion and conclusion
In addition to accelerate non-oil export, border markets can lead to growth and prosperity of economic development in the region. Another benefit that border markets provide to the people of the area is creating job chances. In addition to direct employment of a large number of people in the area around the markets, they can provide good chances of indirect employment to control rural-urban migration and the possibility of participation in great economic competitions. Therefore, the study aims at investigating the effects of border markets on economic and social development of the rural sector of Khaw and Mirabad in Marivan County. Analysis indicates that authorities and local people have similar perspectives. Because sig. in both groups (people 0.251 and authorities 0.134) is more than the alpha= 0.05. People and authorities believe that the new market has not acted successfully in rural development. According to their idea, although the new market has led to decrease in contraband and good chances of second job for most villagers, the new job chances and their income is not satisfying enough to continue the process in a positive way. New created jobs include simple, unskilled labors of low income and difficult situations. Results confirm connections between personal indicators such as: age, level of education, the dependence of income on market and with satisfaction with the current status. For example in education indicator, we see a negative correlation efficient which means that people of higher education are less satisfied with current status.
There is a positive correlation between age indicator and current status of the market, i.e. the older people are, the more satisfied they will be with the current status. Younger people are more dissatisfied which indicates that young people and economic actors are dissatisfied with the situation. Because the age structure of the intended area is young most respondents are at the age of economic activity. During the interview with village respondents of this range of age, two factors of low income and unsuitable working conditions in the market have been introduced as the main reasons of dissatisfaction. In order to draw satisfaction from economic actors we should try to strongly activate the market by creating new job chances with greater income. Because of the intensive positive correlation (0.642) of the dependence of income on market and with satisfaction with the current status, it can be said that money making in the market should go in a direction that villagers get more dependent on it that can consequently result in an increase of satisfaction and continuity of villagers' activities in the market.

Marzieh Pourjopari, Abouzar Paidar, Seyyed Hadi Tayebnia, Aliakbar Anabastani,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (Fall 2022 2022)

Today, eco-tourism is one of the essential aspects of transformation, diversity and economic prosperity of rural communities, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, historical villages and traditional and local communities. Since eco-tourism has different contexts, capacities, patterns and aspects, it is necessary to identify and promote and strengthen patterns appropriate to the conditions of each village for planning the development of rural eco-tourism. Kerman Province has 330 eco-tourism units; most of these accommodation units have recently been set up in villages and tourist areas. Kerman County has always been the focus of tourists due to its historical background and the conditions governing the nature of this region. Considering the importance of tourism activities and eco-tourism in developing rural areas, hence improving the living conditions of the communities, this study analyzes the ability of eco-tourism attractions in Kerman County. Therefore, the central question of the research is, what will be the ideal model of eco-tourism development in the villages of Kerman County?

In terms of the objective, the current research is applied research, and its nature is descriptive-analytical. Collecting information combines two library methods (documents) and survey (field-based questionnaires and interviews). The research questionnaire collects the required information from 37 components in economic, social-cultural, environmental, security, physical-spatial, and several variables. The content validity of the questionnaire was verified from the point of view of professors and experts in the field of geography. Also, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to verify the reliability of many research questions. Cronbach's alpha of most variables is more significant than 0.7, so the reliability of all variables is confirmed. In addition, the average variance extracted is always more than 0.5, so the convergent validity is also confirmed.

Discussion and conclusion
According to the findings, eco-tourism development has generally had positive effects in all dimensions and components, although to different extents. The observed factor load has a value greater than 0.3 in most cases. Therefore, there was a proper correlation between the visible and hidden variables. However, the development of eco-tourism has not been able to be brought up in the villages properly. It is possible to state in a general way the pattern of eco-tourism development in the villages of Kerman city. Generally, the model is based on economic empowerment. In this way, in the first step, rural areas should generally be improved in factors such as unemployment reduction, job diversity and stable employment, stable income, investment of villagers in tourism, entry of non-native investors, product branding, packaging, conversion and Processing all kinds of livestock and agricultural products, creating and expanding local markets, overcoming the inability and dependence or lack of dependence on foreign resources and products (city) and the government for villagers, equal access to opportunities and resources, the dynamics of the supply chain and value in the village, supporting and empowering the deprived sections of the society. Also, the shape of the eco-tourism development pattern for Joshan, Sirach, Mazieh and Akhtarabad Rural Districts is considered physical-spatial, which means that in terms of construction, strengthening of buildings, use of local materials in construction and creation of attractiveness, improvement and widening of roads and bridges, embellishment, lighting of roads need to be improved. In other rural districts like Mahan, a security model is suggested, so political stability, public and personal security, and reduction of crimes and anomalies inside the village and houses, outside the village on roads and virgin areas are more important than other dimensions. In Qanatghistan, environmental aspects like the preservation and expansion of pastures, medicinal plants, water and soil resources, animal life, and new and sustainable energies should be considered. The pattern of development of Rayen and Hossein Abad tourism has a social and cultural format, which includes preserving and expanding customs, the way of holding and organizing celebrations and weddings, mourning, occasions, games, music, dance, show, preservation and expansion of beliefs and cultures and native architecture, preservation of historical buildings (mosques, caravanserais, shrines, castles, tombs, baths); The ideal model for the development of eco-tourism in other villages such as Koirat, Zangi-Abad, Drakhngan, Sar Asiyab, Baghin is an economic and environmental model; Takab and Andohjerd: economic and socio-cultural; And Kashit: physical-spatial and security combined.


Miss Seyed Hadi Tayebnia, Miss Sdighe Barniani,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (6-2024)

in the research, it has been tried to evaluate the impact of undesirable and irregular structural-functional changes in the lack of development of rural settlements in the central district of Manojan Township. The current research is applied in terms of purpose, and in terms of descriptive-analytical method. The statistical population of the current research is 66 settlements in the villages of the central district of Manojan Township, which has a population of 49,428, and using the Cochran formula, 379 people were selected by simple and random sampling and by the proportionality method, and the questionnaire was completed proportionally. SPSS software was used to analyze statistical tests. The results of the research indicate that there is no significant relationship between the settlement system with a structural-functional approach and the development of rural settlements in the central district of Manojan Township, and most of the rural settlements do not have minimum services and facilities, and according to the Pearson correlation test, most of the villages They are considered unstable villages. There is a significant relationship between the components of structural-functional changes and indicators of lack of development. The results of the multiple regression test show the influence of structural-functional components (independent variable) on the level of residential development (dependent variable) in the villages of the central district of Manojan Township, and it indicates that these components changes, At the level of residential development, they explain the villages of Manojan Township. Therefore, according to the research findings of rural settlements, in the central district of Manojan Township, it is unstable in terms of structural-functional dynamics, irregular and scattered, and lacks services and facilities.

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