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Dadollah Behmand,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (2-2021)

Failure to recognize the state and bottlenecks of agriculture is a serious obstacle to the balanced distribution of resources and the comprehensive planning to address less developed areas. Understanding these issues and developing appropriate programs to eliminate or reduce them include: improving agriculture, optimizing the potential of the agricultural sector, increasing production, increasing farmers' incomes, consolidating rural populations, and promoting the agricultural development of the region. This requires determining the developmental levels of the studied area in terms of agricultural development indicators in order to analyze the agricultural situation in the region. Therefore, in order to be more precise in planning and achieve sustainable agriculture development, it is necessary to identify agricultural areas regarding development and inadequacy. Hence, measuring the level of agricultural development in different areas, with regard to natural capacities and institutional constraints and management conditions, is of particular importance in recognizing the regional differences in development, special talents, deprivations and inequalities. In this way, agricultural development planning is orientated appropriately in terms of area urgency, volume of investments, types of programs and actions, thus, balanced management and planning of agricultural development requires recognition.
Materials and methods
The type of research is applied and developmental and its method is descriptive-analytical. The statistical population is 8 counties in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Provinces based on the census of 2016. The required information is collected from the Statistical Yearbook (2016), the organization of Agriculture-Jahad, the Agricultural Census and the Organization of Statistics. The studied indicator is agricultural in this research which consists of 34 variables. Also, the selection of variables in a way that emphasizes all aspects of the agricultural index (manpower, infrastructure, mechanization, health, etc.) are emphasized. The weight of each of the variables is determined by the AHP method (Pair-wise copmarison). In this research, SPSS, Excel and quantitative programming models (VIKOR, TOPSIS and SAW) were used to analyze the data of agricultural development in the provinces of the region. Given the fact that the results of these three models were not consistent in some cases, a general consensus was used for the Copeland method. Finally, in order to proper understanding of the development situation in the county, development maps are drawn using the GIS software.
Results and discussion
The results of this study indicate that in the TOPSIS model there is no county in the province with a very high development status. Bahmei and Boyerahmad counties are in relatively agricultural developed condition, Kohgiluyeh, Cheram and Dena in the situation and finally 37/5 percent of the counties, namely, Basht, Gachsaran and Landie counties are relatively deprived and undeveloped in terms of the agricultural index. The analysis of the results of the Vikor model showed that Boyerahmad with a value of 0/091 is in the first rank of agricultural development and in a fully developed state, Kohgiluyeh and Bahmei counties ranked second and third with respectively 0/245 and 0.296 scores and their situation is relatively developed. The most of the counties Charm, Dena and Lange, are numerically equal to 0/409, 0/487 and 0/584 respectively, ranked fourth to sixth, Gachsaran county with the score of 0/712 is ranked seventh and the development status is relatively deprived, and eventually the county of Basht with a numerical value of 1 is ranked 8th and a very unfavorable condition (completely deprived). Also, the results of the SAW model indicate that Boyerahmad County (rank 1) is in a very high development status.
The present study was carried out using agricultural index in the form of 34 variables that were not included in any of the researches done in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province, while presenting realistic findings on the state of development of the agriculture, rational realism for planners - urban and regional, both at provincial level and at country level. A review of the research background and research findings suggest that the results of the study are credible and confirm the results of previous surveys. The findings of the research indicate the agricultural development gap among counties of the province. The results of this study homogeneous with other researches of Fotros & Baheshti Far (2009), Kohnalsal and Rafiee (2010), Jamshidi (2011), Tavakoli (2012 and 2014), BabaeiAgdam et al (2016).
The study of the development condition of agricultural areas of the county using the integrated model showed that in the counties of the province, there is no one with a very high agricultural development status. The county of Boyer Ahmad has a score of 0/797 in the first rank (relatively developed) and the county of Basht with a difference of 0/653 and a combined index of 0/44 in the eighth place (the state is totally deprived of development). Also, 37.5% of the counties (Boyerahmad, Bahmei and Kohgiluyeh) were relatively developed, 25% of the counties (Dena and Chram Counties) were in moderate development, 25 percent (Gachsaran and Lande Counties) were relatively deprived, and, finally, 12.5% ​​of the them (Basht) are totally deprived.

Mohsen Aghayari Hir , Mohammad Zahheri, Hossein Karimzadeh, Ali Majnuni Tutakhaneh,
Volume 10, Issue 36 (8-2021)

Due to its geographical location and climatic conditions, Iran is facing water shortages. A large part of the country is in arid and semi-arid climates. In addition to the dry weather of the country, mismanagement, short knowledge of farmers, outdated infrastructure, low level of technology have led to low water productivity in rural areas. The Qaleh chai watershed is one of the catchments located around Lake Urmia, which is facing water shortage due to drought conditions. This area with 36 villages is known as one of the hubs of agricultural and livestock production. According to the obtained data, the water efficiency level in the basin is less than 50%. Lack of water resources has led to the need to pay attention to ways to improve water efficiency. It seems that several factors play a role in the quantity and quality of water use, in other words, in the level of its productivity in The Qaleh Chai, and the most important ones include geographical conditions such as slope, location of villages, amount of products produced. Literacy level, number of rural households, water resources, amount of water available. By identifying and analyzing the factors affecting the promotion of water productivity in the basin, the amount of water productivity can be improved. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate and find a scientific answer to the question of what is the spatial distribution of factors affecting water productivity in villages located in The Qale chai? And to what extent can the studied variables explain the changes related to water productivity?
The research method is descriptive-analytical and inferential, which has based on documentary studies, libraries, and field studies. Local Moran correlation tests and geographic weight regression (GWR) tests were used to analyze the data. The variables used in this study included 19 environmental components affecting water productivity: Number and spatial distribution of springs, number and spatial distribution of wells, river water volume, water abstraction from wells, water abstraction from rivers, water abstraction from springs, length of concrete irrigation canals of all canals, the total volume of water in Consumption, number of households, unemployment rate, the employment rate in agriculture, literacy rate, rial value of tree products, rial value of rainfed products, rial value of summer crops, rial value of light livestock products, rial value of heavy livestock products, agricultural and medium irrigated land area Slope of villages to percent.
Water productivity has been used to calculate the rial value of livestock products, agricultural products, and human variables. The study area of this research is the Qaleh chai which has 36 villages located in it. The region of this basin is equal to 249.63 square kilometers, which has located in East Azerbaijan province and the southeast of Lake Urmia.
Discussion and conclusion
Research Findings show that the number of spring water resources is higher in mountainous villages and, the number of wells is higher in plain rural. The results of Moran showed that the variables of the Iranian Rial value of livestock production and the total amount of available water lack spatial autocorrelation. Also, the variable of the Iranian Rial value of all agricultural products has no spatial autocorrelation, but the total number of water resources has a spatial correlation. There is also an intense spatial correlation in the average slope of the villages, but the results of this test on the final water productivity lack spatial correlation. According to the results, the literacy variable of spatial autocorrelation is cluster type. The variables of household size and employment have no spatial correlation. Results The GWR regarding the causal role of the variable related to the final value of agricultural products and livestock products with water productivity showed that the last value of products with a correlation of R2 = 229 can explain water productivity. Based on the results of the geographical weight regression test, the value of R2 for social variables was equal to R2 = 0.129, which is lower than the final value variables of livestock and agricultural products.
Findings of this study show that factors such as the number of agricultural products produced, water resources, the volume of water available from water resources, land slope, number of water pumps and Iranian Rial value of livestock and agricultural products, literacy rate, employment rate, population have a significant relationship with water productivity. According to the research findings, it is clear that to achieve an efficient solution to improve water productivity in the villages located in the Qalah Chai watershed, it must have all the operative factors, including natural elements. Human factors, management factors, and physical characteristics are based on accurate, reliable data and planning occurrence.

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