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Mousa Sadeghi, Hossein Rabiei,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Achievement of rural development as a way to maintain national security and identity requires extra efforts regarding deprivation issue in backward regions and makes them receive their development rights. Economic development paves the way for creation of optimum and thriving life space. It is argued that physical isolation, potential economic and physical incapability, and remoteness from political, economic and decision making focal points enhance their degree of under development and make the corresponding gap even wider. The authors believe that the creation of border markets in rural areas is being considered as one of the strategy regarding spatial economic development in border areas. This could lead to stabilization of population, creation of job opportunities, , reduction of goods smuggling activities, utilization of common resources between neighboring countries, sustainable economic development. It further decreases geopolitics tensions between two countries through increase in goods movement and better utilization of space economy. Golestan province and Gonbad Kuvoos city are located in dry climatic region. This is associated with potential physical and economic incapability namely with respect to agricultural sector. Lack of space economy invites planning. One of the most important plans regarding economic development taking into account its potential situation as well as its border location is development of border markets in which could facilitate the trade between two countries. This in turn would grantee security, employment and higher level of development. This study aims to emphasize spatial development and rural organization with respect to border villages. Taking into account its specific climatic conditions as well as geopolitics challenges resulted from having common border with Torkamanestan, development of border markets could be an appropriate option. They could enhance national security, stabilization of population as well as immigration.
Research Method:
This study has applied nature. Data gathered through documentary approach. After reviewing the relevant literatures and based on finding associated with previous studies conducted by Fajr development consulting engineers and existing information, indices and indicators were selected. This is followed by application of multi criteria decision making technique, TOPSIS, regarding data analysis.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Based on the application of TOPSIS technique and corresponding computation and more specifically measurement of similarity index, Dashli Brun would be an optimum location for creation of border market and considered to be target village. The corresponding indices regarding determination of Dashi Brun as target village are distance to Inche Brun border market, to Eshghabad, to provincial town, to border, concentration index, amenities indices and population growth rate. It is argued that distance to Inche Brun border market could lead to better distribution of economic activities in border region. Moreover, distance from capital of Torkamanestan, Eshghabad, could enhance trade along the border and subsequent economic prosperity in the bordering region. Distance to Golestan center and other populous cities increase both imports and exports activities in border market. Centrality index and population growth rate will lead to provision of needed labor force for border market as well as better population distribution in the region and the province. This in turn will improve rural space economy in pioneer area. In effect, development of Dashli Brun border market will have great impact upon rural economic development income level and other corresponding development indices .Space economy associated with rural area more specifically border regions demand more attention ,interactions and components resulted from government divergence and convergences, border line controls and preventing goods smuggling activities. It is argued that space economy play better role regarding border market. The development of border market could well be justified by the existence of physical and climatic barriers, unpleasant social, economic and entertaining conditions, lack of desire and motivation to leave in the area, political, economic and security challenges in the area This invites planning in order to fully utilize the regional potentials. 

Sayed Hadi Tayebnia, Soran Manoochehri,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)

Today economists introduce the trade as an engine for development incentive. So, the establishment of border markets is a good strategy to eliminate the created gap of central and border areas. Consequently, what has recently attracted the attention of many development planners is to get rid of current economic and social crises of frontiersmen. These markets compensate for the current weakness of economy within borders. They also prevent border villages from getting deserted. Also, by distribution of development benefits to surrounding areas, border markets create chances for socio-economic development. Addressing this issue from a scientific perspective shows that countries involved in the problems of insecurity in their border region have found that insecurities are due to underdevelopment conditions and their functional consequences. In other words, poverty and hardship in these regions can cause an environment of insecurity and enemies' abuse. Conditions like this can be easily seen in rural areas border of Iran. What is strongly recommended to help security providing in rural areas border is using all the potentials for development of these regions; including promotion of trade through the establishment and expansion of border markets.
The area of study in Khav and MirAbad Villages are located in the west of Marivan, one of the ten counties of Kurdistan in zero point borders with Iraq. In this area, the two factors of distance from the center and low efficiency of agricultural production led to the prevalence of poverty, unemployment, and migration, and the increased tendency to informal activities (contraband), as well. Meanwhile, geographical conditions of the area and consistency of cultural and social conditions with people across the border has provided an appropriate situation for the establishment of border market. Due to the great potentials of cross-border trade together with Bashmaq official customs, border markets of villagers were founded in 1389 to decrease informal activities, improve livelihoods, and decrease the rate of rural-urban migrations. For years, we have focused on the process of economic and social development and anti-deprivation of rural areas of Khav and MirAbad as the gist of the article. Now, in this research, we are going to explain its function and performance. In addition, this research aims to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the process in order to adopt new strategies of problem solving.
Hence, research questions are as follows: 1) has the establishment of new border markets caused economic and social development of surrounding villages? 2) Is there any significant connection between people's satisfaction of current status of the intended markets and their personal intentions such as age, educational level and income dependence on the activities done in the market?
This is an applied research done by descriptive-analytical method. The theoretical part was done using documentary and library studies, while using survey studies in the practical part. Using library method, we have provided some library notes, reports, articles and statistics of related organizations. For field studies of the research we have also used questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Considering the aim of the study, the statistical society of the research consists of two groups of official authorities (chosen from rural related organizations) and rural households settled in 31 residential villages of Khav and MirAbad who have been allowed to operate in the market. Initially applying Cochran formula and then its correcting version we could determine the sample size of rural households of this area, which has a population of 11407 people, 2736 households, and 31 villages according to 1390 census. Finally, a number of 175 households were adopted as sample society so, the number of questionnaires needed was determined.
Then, we have classified villages according to their distance to the border. Maximum distance to Iraq border is 21 KM. Villages of this area are classified in 3 groups of (distant, adjacent, and medium distance areas). From the first class which was consisted of 60% of the villages, 3 villages were chosen. From the other two groups which were consisted of 20% of the villages, we have chosen just one sample from each one. The total 5 villages which include 15% of all, have introduced as samples. Sample villages of each group have been randomly chosen using draw method in respective categories of each village. We have then applied matched sampling to identify the contribution of each village of questionnaires. Questionnaires were randomly distributed among head of the rural households. According to previous studies and regional conditions of the area, the questionnaires have provided in Economic and social dimensions, consisting 5 components of employment, income, living expenses, services and facilities, and social issues and 24 variable to measure the effectiveness of the market in economic and social development of rural areas.
Validity of the questionnaires has been determined by authorities who have been already selected to complete them and experts of similar studies history in the studied area. Its reliability has also been confirmed regarding to the amount of 0.81 as Cronbach's alpha coefficients calculated in SPSS software. Analyzing the information obtained was done by the use of Wilcoxon test and Spearman and Kendall correlation coefficient.
Discussion and conclusion
In addition to accelerate non-oil export, border markets can lead to growth and prosperity of economic development in the region. Another benefit that border markets provide to the people of the area is creating job chances. In addition to direct employment of a large number of people in the area around the markets, they can provide good chances of indirect employment to control rural-urban migration and the possibility of participation in great economic competitions. Therefore, the study aims at investigating the effects of border markets on economic and social development of the rural sector of Khaw and Mirabad in Marivan County. Analysis indicates that authorities and local people have similar perspectives. Because sig. in both groups (people 0.251 and authorities 0.134) is more than the alpha= 0.05. People and authorities believe that the new market has not acted successfully in rural development. According to their idea, although the new market has led to decrease in contraband and good chances of second job for most villagers, the new job chances and their income is not satisfying enough to continue the process in a positive way. New created jobs include simple, unskilled labors of low income and difficult situations. Results confirm connections between personal indicators such as: age, level of education, the dependence of income on market and with satisfaction with the current status. For example in education indicator, we see a negative correlation efficient which means that people of higher education are less satisfied with current status.
There is a positive correlation between age indicator and current status of the market, i.e. the older people are, the more satisfied they will be with the current status. Younger people are more dissatisfied which indicates that young people and economic actors are dissatisfied with the situation. Because the age structure of the intended area is young most respondents are at the age of economic activity. During the interview with village respondents of this range of age, two factors of low income and unsuitable working conditions in the market have been introduced as the main reasons of dissatisfaction. In order to draw satisfaction from economic actors we should try to strongly activate the market by creating new job chances with greater income. Because of the intensive positive correlation (0.642) of the dependence of income on market and with satisfaction with the current status, it can be said that money making in the market should go in a direction that villagers get more dependent on it that can consequently result in an increase of satisfaction and continuity of villagers' activities in the market.

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