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Showing 11 results for Economic Development

Mojtaba Ghadirimasoum, Hadi Gharagozloo,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2013)

The construction of industrial towns and regions are being considered as an important strategies regarding rural development. However, Iran is not an exception. It is being argued that by 2010, there exists 335 industrial regions. This in turn, could explain prominent changes associated with rural areas. The research method of this study is based on descriptive- analytical method. 50 out of 139 employed people were extracted. This study further is supported by application of McNamara and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. This study suggests that there exists signification difference and variation with regard to income, variance in occupations, job satisfaction as well as security, improvement in nutrition and quality of life indices. However, there are not major significant variations regarding community participation, ownership, and rural inertia.

Seyyed Hassan Moteei-Langroudi, Maryam Rezaeyeh-Azadi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2013)

Economic outcomes and consequences are among one of the most prominent reasons for tourism planners. Tourism is being considered as major motive as long as the economic development is concerned. Taking into account peasant’s economic status as well as downward trend in agricultural activity and high rate of rural migration, there exists a need regarding an economic alternative complementary with agriculture. This in turn leads to rural sustainable development as well as sustainable livelihood. This is associated with improvement in quality of life and rural satisfaction. Band resort, a tourism destination located in vicinity of Oromee-e taking into consideration its prime location and eco-tourism potentials and its closeness to Oromee-e is capable of attracting many tourists. However, not all of the potentials and capabilities of this resort have been uncovered toward sustainable tourism economy. This study aims to investigate the economic impacts from host community’s point of view. It is based on descriptive and analytical method. Sample size happens to be 300 households extracted out of Band village. Data analysis requires application of non-parametric χ2 and T test. This paper shows that tourism has led to economic impacts including creation of job opportunities, revenue for the peasants. However, increase in land price is among its negative economic
Aaij Azmi, Hadi Almasi,
Volume 3, Issue 8 (8-2014)

New rural management and Islamic Councils are being considered as people-oriented institutions during last years with regard to rural economic development. This in turn, demands extra efforts for improvement of this institution status. The major objective of this study is to analyze the influential factors upon strengthening the economic role of these councils in rural area of Harsin (Kermanshah). The research method of this study is descriptive – analytical using questionnaire survey. The sample size is determined to be 50. The sampling techniques were based on simple random sample out of which 32 villages were selected. This is followed by application of Cronbach's for determination of research viability of the research data. K.M.O coefficient (o.7 and 0.71) as well as Bartlett’s test were used. Data analyses were done via utilization of descriptive methods including median, frequency, principle component analysis and Wilcoxon. This study suggests that there exist significant variation regarding economic service provision prior and after the foundation of these rural councils. Moreover, 6 preventive components with respect to economic rural development were identified. They include the legal deficiencies of the councils, their in capabilities related to passing economic rules, peoples cooperation with the councils, the community’s lack of familiarity with the council’s rules, the people’s lack of confidence regarding the council’s performance and their low financial and administrative authorization level. This is followed by identification of four other corresponding factor including community participation, better council membership selection procedure, high acquaintance of council’s members regarding rural economic problems, drawing governmental, public and private financial supports regarding rural projects and high intimacy of council members performance.

Hossein Farahani, Zakia Rasouli Nia, Zahra Asdqy Sraskanrvd,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (11-2014)

Nowadays, low job offers, unemployment and rural poverty are being considered as a major driving force for rural- urban migration. This in turn may cause some problems both for rural and urban communities as well as some challenges with respect toachievement of sustainable rural communities.  Taking into account these challenges, entrepreneurs through their creative economic efforts could be helpful regarding economic improvement of rural areas. Even though the major motive behind this sort of activities is private benefit but they could provide proper atmosphere for entrepreneurial ship at local, regional and national level. Rural communities taking into account their physical, social and economic situations simultaneously could offer both opportunity and weakness regarding entrepreneurial ship. It is argued that the development of entrepreneurial activities in rural areas must be based on rural capabilities in order to be successful and head toward sustainability. Jaber Ansar district located in central part of Abdanan, taking into account its prominent characteristics including proximity to urban areas, possession of active handicraft, the existence of fertile agricultural lands and natural resource abundance, possess high entrepreneurial potentials at local and regionalnevel. The major objective of this study is to investigate sustainable rural development potential from entrepreneurial ship and employment aspect in the study area.
The type of study of this study is explorative. It is based on descriptive- analytical research method. It is further supported by documentation and field works including questionnaire, interviews and observation. The study area is Jaber Ansar district located in Abdanan. Statistical society is composed of head of households were selected through application of Cochran formula and random sampling technique. The questionnaires were composed of four components and 32 indicators related to entrepreneurial development and rural employment. The data analysis further demands application of descriptive statistics and principal component analysis and SPSS.
According to principle component analysis results in the study area, eight factors including infra-structure, economic, awareness, self-confidence, personal creativity,innovative capabilities, physical infra structures and access to different facilities have prominent impacts upon sustainable development from entrepreneur aspects. These factors are capable of explaining 75.25% of the variation. Infra structural and social factor with eigenvalue of 5.63% is the major factor and is capable of explaining 17.60% of the variation. This is followed by economic factor as the second major one with the eigenvalue of 4.48%. It is capable of explaining 14.01 % of the variation. The least important factor is access to economic. Facilities eigenvalue is % 44 and capable of explaining 4.51% of the variation. It may be concluded that the improvement of appropriate public infra–structures including provision of drinking water, electricity and fuel, proper communications as well as transportation facilities, post banks, well designed and equipped transportation systems for shipping commodities to markets, access to skilled and literate labor force are all being considered as influential factors for provision of needed potentials and pave the way for entrepreneurship. It is argued that economic development in rural areas requires new strategies. This in turn is associated with entrepreneurship and environmental policies. Thus economically speaking entrepreneur plans in the study areas would be fairly effective needed for creation of occupation, special credit facilities sufficient funds for small businesses, awarding low interest rate and non-paying back loans especially in deprived areas are among some of the recommended measures.

Masoud Mahdavi, Parvin Abdi,
Volume 3, Issue 10 (3-2015)

The achievement of sustainable development is being considered as prominent objective of rural planners. Agriculture is very important sector in this regard. Its associated activities could encompass all pillar of sustainability that is economic, environmental, social and institutional. Jouzan in Hamadan is being known as one of the major area regarding raisin as well as grape production. This in turn, is associated with sustainable rural economic development. The research questions are as follow: To what extent nuts and dried fruits are responsible for employment opportunities and income generation? Are these products capable of attracting investment?
Needed data were obtained through both field works and documentation. Statistical society composed of all rural settlers of Jouzan district. According to 2011 census this district encompasses 12 villages, 2204 households and 7301 persons. Maniran upper Nowshar due to high acreage of vine vary yard were chosen as sample villages via random sampling technique and Cochran formula. Viability of this study through application of Kronbakh alpha turned out to be 0.821.
This study suggests that the household’s status from income stand point compare with the time that this village was not involved in dried fruit production, greatly improved, number of created job due to construction of raison processing companies. It further shows that the amount of saving and purchasing power of rural settlers greatly promoted. The degree of investment in both private and public sectors increased thanks, to positive economic impact of raison and dried fruit production.

Esmaeil Najafi, Yaqub Abdali, Maryam Beyranvandzadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (2-2021)

One of the major and fundamental issues in the field of spatial planning is balanced development, which can be raised in the form of balanced development of sectors or regions. In line with the social justice policy, as the central aim of the country's development plans, it is necessary to study the situation of different regions in terms of distribution and the extent of having different environmental indicators and consider the shortcomings and inadequacies for future development plans. Such studies can show the situation of different geographical areas from a comparative point of view and classify them in terms of development facilities and bottlenecks, also, determine their development priorities. In this way, by assessing the potential level of the regions, their facilities and capabilities can be presented from different perspectives and the necessary tools can be provided to ascertain the decision for allocation of different resources in the territory. The aim of this study is to level, classify and spatial zoning of rural poverty in Hormozgan Province using environmental indicators and combined indicators. These indicators have been used to rank the rural areas of Hormozgan Province based on the level of environmental potential. The results of this study can be effective for decision-making officials and ultimately, the development of social justice.
Research Methods
The present research applied-developmental in terms of purpose. In respect of the type of methods it is a combination of descriptive-analytical and correlational methods. The data used were collected through statistics and information published from the identification of settlements and statistical yearbook published in 2016, meteorological data, topographic maps, geology and faults, etc. For data analysis, McGranhan method or correlation coefficient method was used. Furthurmore, calculating the sum of points has been used to weight the indicators. The fuzzy scaling method is one of the most common and important methods for normalizing stability indices, which is the basis of many other methods and is also mentioned in the sources with titles such as deprivation coefficient. Indicators with a positive aspect (ascending) and indicators with a negative aspect (descending) have different computational bases. This method has also been used to determine deprivation coefficients and the Combined Human Development Index in the UN Human Development Report. This method also uses Spearman correlation coefficient. Kramer correlation coefficient has been used to express the degree of correlation between the two variables studied independent variables (environmental factors) and dependent variables (economic development).
Discussion and Conclusion
Based on the calculated combined environmental index score, 92 villages of Hormozgan province are located in 5 classes and zones. In 13.04% of the rural areas, the combined index score is less than 0.913 and in these rural areas, the environmental potential for development is very low. In 9.78% of the rural areas, the combined index score is between 0.914 to 1.095 and in these rural areas, the environmental potential for development is low. 38.04% of the rural areas in terms of environmental potential are in the range of 1.096 to 1.279, which is at an average level. Combined environmental index score in 28.26% of rural areas is between 1.280 to 1.462 and these rural areas have great potential in terms of environmental indicators. In 10.87% of the rural areas, the score of the combined environmental index is 1.463 and more. These rural areas have a great environmental potential. Among the rural districts of Hormozgan Province, Koukherd and Fatoueh Rural Districts are from Koukherd and central district of Bastak County, Gafer, Darabsar, Jakdan and Sardasht Rural Districts of Gaofroparmon, Gohran and central district in Bashagard County; Bandar Charak Rural District of Shibkuh District in Bandar Lengeh County; Rovidar Rural District of Rovidar District in Khamir County; Faryab Rural District of the central district in Rudan County and Cheragabad, Karian and Gorband Rural District of Tokhoor and central districts of Minab County are among the rural districts that are in a low situation of environmental capabilities and potentials. As the results suggest, the highest percentage of frequency is related to the level of moderate and low environmental poverty and the lowest percentage is related to rural areas with high environmental poverty and very low environmental poverty. That is, out of 92 rural areas in Hormozgan Province, 12 villages are very high in poverty, 9 villages are very poor, 35 villages are moderately poor, 26 villages are low in poverty and 10 villages are very low in poverty.
The results suggest that there is a direct and significant relationship between environmental variables and rural economic development. The significant level (0.000) indicates the relationship between independent variables (environmental factors) and dependent (economic development). Rainfall, water resources, climate, land potential and natural hazards (earthquake and flood) are the most important environmental indicators that can play a role in limiting the economic development of rural areas in Hormozgan Province.
The main natural environmental limitations for rural economic development in Hormozgan Province are the following:
  • Low precipitation with unfavorable time and space distribution, hence lack of water resources, as a result, it is difficult to regenerate the natural forests and pastures and return to normal balance.
  • Extension and multiplicity of saline formation along with alkalinity, which has made a large part of the province's water and soil resources saline and inutile.  
  • Risks caused by natural disasters, the influx of dunes and desertification with a negative inclination in pasture production and lack of investment to protect forests and pastures, water and soil and rural fuel supply.
  • Continuation of drought and its negative consequences in agriculture, urban and rural development.
  • Existence of unfavorable weather conditions that cause severe depreciation of material capital and machinery compared to other regions of the country. Also, the biggest problem in rural employment is the inadequacy of income from economic activities (mainly agriculture and maritime). One of the most important strategies in the field of agriculture is the development of greenhouse cultivation due to the conditions of water resources and shortages in this sector.

Mohammad Nasiri Lakeh, Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin, Eisa Pourramzan,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (4-2021)

The rural management system in Iran has undergone complex transformations in terms of socio-economic structures over the years, and efficient management void in rural areas in the long run, especially in recent decades, has posed many obstacles for villagers.
In this regard, it is necessary to explain the importance of local management in all dimensions and explain the role of local managers in performing tasks in rural areas in order to increase productivity, efficiency. After the formation of Islamic councils, and subsequently the establishment of rural municipality paved the way for giving the people the authority to manage. This leads to social capital in these areas, which can follow ensue further development.
In the present study, we first identify the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats of the current rural management system, and then by reforming the rural management system, it provided conditions for the socio-cultural and economic development of villages in the central region of Guilan Province.  Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the rural management system and rural economic and socio-cultural development in the central region of Guilan Province.

According to the purpose, nature and method, this study is considered as an applied and descriptive-analytical research, respectively. In order to achieve the purpose of the research, the technique of direct observation was utilized in five dimensions to obtain data on the status and level of development of the studied counties. The statistical population of the study is the central area of Guilan province, villages depending on their height above the sea level are in two classes: coastal-plain and foothill-mountain. In order to select the samples in the villages of each county in the central region two criteria of population and geographical situation were considered. 120 villages were randomly selected from the villages from six counties of the region. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods as well as SPSS software were used to explain the central tendency and variability. Tables based on the T test and Arc GIS was used to produce the maps.

Discussion and conclusion
In this study, rural development in the central region of Guilan has been studied as a dependent variable in both economic and socio-cultural dimensions. In order to study rural management in two socio-cultural and economic dimensions, 33 items are considered "socio-cultural" and 31 items are considered "economic".
The item of raising the level of scientific knowledge of the villagers has obtained the lowest average score (3.17) in a total of 33 items studied in the socio-cultural dimension. In general, the average score of all social items is 3.71, which is higher than the mean, or 3, so it can be concluded that the improvement of rural management system is effective for socio-cultural development of villages. Also, the improvement of rural management system provides the socio-cultural development of the villages. It was also found that the items of cooperation with the Civil Registration Organization, recognizing social and cultural deficiencies and suggesting plans, introducing orphaned kids to support institutions, providing cultural and educational facilities and preparing support plans were among the most important items.  
In general, the average score of all economic items is 3.55, which is higher than the mean, or 3, so it can be concluded that improving the rural management system is effective on rural economic development. The items “estimation and regulation of annual rural budget", “business licensing", "impact of improving new management on rural economic development", "types of rural insurance" and "preparation of reform plans and proposals" in the economic sector with the highest scores, thereby are more important and effective than other items.
According to the findings of the present study, rural management in the central region of Guilan has economic and socio-cultural disadvantages. Therefore, suggestions in each of the dimensions of economic and socio-cultural development are presented as follows:
  • Predicting credits and facilities to support rural entrepreneurship according to the capacities of each village.
  • Preparing priority employment-generating plans in order to enjoy government support from the executive management of the villages based on the capabilities of each of the villages in the district.
  • Holding educational programs for Islamic village councils and rural governors relating to their various duties, rights and laws and regulations.
  • Holding rural employment and entrepreneurship training courses for villagers in the central area of Guilan.

Ali Akbar Najafi Kani,
Volume 10, Issue 38 (3-2022)

On the one hand, food Supply to the country's 85 million people and its growing population, and the need to achieve self-sufficiency in agricultural production and food security, on the other hand, necessitate an increase in agricultural production in the country. This requires an alteration in traditional farming systems and methods, including soil cultivation and open field cultivation (cultivation in farm and garden) and their replacement with new and high-yield methods such as hydroponics.
Hydroponics, despite the need for sufficient expertise and relatively high initial capital compared to soil cultivation,  has several advantages such as high yield, low labor requirement, no need to observe crop rotation, weed control, plant growth uniformity, minimum water loss, Lack of competition of plants for water and nutrients, the possibility of providing food supply in accordance with the needs of plants, less use of chemicals and as a result healthier crops. Another advantage of this system is its applicability and use in various levels, including large greenhouses commercially and small home scales. In-home environments, by using unused spaces such as homes’ rooftops, indoors and even parking lots and so on, the required products can be easily produced organically. By using the mentioned method and by employing the professional and the youth of the country and also by considering the numerous advantages of hydroponic systems, not only it creates jobs and entrepreneurship, but also helps the development of the country's economy by producing valuable products.

Research Methodology
Due to the importance of the subject, the general purpose of this study is to scrutinize the role of hydroponic farming in the prosperity and the production leap and, consequently, the economic development of rural areas. The present study is in applied form and in terms of the method is descriptive-analytical based on field studies and the statistical population is the villages of the central district of Gorgan County. After identifying and designing the indicators, a questionnaire was prepared that by using Cochran's formula, 240 employers and hydroponic farmworkers, as well as villagers, were selected and interviewed as a sample population. Finally, using the T-test and Mann–Whitney U test, multiple linear regression test, and cluster analysis  (compression type) in the SPSS software environment, data were measured and analyzed.
Gorgan has a privileged geographical position and excellent climatic conditions due to its location which is between a vast and fertile plain and mountains covered with forests and also its relatively short distance to the Caspian Sea. This County is bounded by Aq Qala city from the north, Semnan Province from the south, Aliabad County from the east, and Kordkuy County from the west. In terms of area, Gorgan is 1615 square kilometers (7.91 percent of the province) and the average height of the city is 155 meters above sea level. According to the country divisions in 2016, it consists of two central parts, Baharan and five Rural Districts (Estarabad-e Jonubi, Anjirabad, Roshanabad, Estarabad-e Shomali, Qoroq) and 98 villages.

Results and discussion
The results of the independent t-Test indicate that there is a significant difference in the production of summer crops per unit area between the two studied methods and the income of landowners with a 99% confidence level. The results of the Mann-Whitney test also indicate that there is a significant difference of 99% among the chemical fertilizers absorption coefficient, pesticides, and the apparent quality of crops. Moreover, the results of the multiple linear regression test to explain the effectiveness of hydroponics in multiple fields show that their satisfaction with hydroponics is very high. In other words, the hydroponics method not only reduces water consumption and increases production per unit area and demonstrates the 99% relationship, but also partially improves the absorption of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in the plant. The results obtained or the coefficient of determination obtained in the regression indicate that hydroponic farming was effective up to approximately 88% in increasing crop production per unit area, reducing water consumption and increasing the fertilizers and absorption coefficient, and also increasing farmers' incomes. Cluster analysis was used to measure the development capacity of hydroponics in the target villages and they were classified into four categories in terms of development capacity. Villages of the first cluster (Karimabad and Saadabad) and villages of the second cluster (Lamlang, Jelin, Kheyrat,Fayzabad and Ziarat) have the highest development capacity of hydroponics, respectively. The villages of the third cluster (Maryamabad) and the villages of the fourth cluster (Qarnabad, Dodangeh, Ahangar Mahalleh, and Tushan), although they have good capacity in different fields, they have a lower capacity in comparison to the villages of the first and second clusters.

Jaleh Koorkinejad,
Volume 11, Issue 40 (9-2022)

Pressure on production resources and the environment is getting higher due to increased population and the need for food, especially in developing countries. Thus, the preservation of natural resources and proper allocation of inputs must be considered in production. Sustainable agriculture suggests a framework for human needs without harming the environment and the proper and optimal use of natural resources while taking into account the rights of future generations. Achieving sustainable agricultural development is possible only if productive factors such as labor and social capital are regarded alongside physical capital. Social capital, a complement to other forms of capital, is a prerequisite for achieving sustainable development, especially in rural communities. Development in rural areas requires the expansion of trust, participation and communication and cohesion among farmers. Social capital is a factor that compensates for the deficiency of other capital inputs and binds other inputs like glue. This study investigated social capital and its role in facilitating and accelerating sustainable development in the villages of the north of Sirjan County. 

This study first evaluated the different dimensions of social capital and sustainable development using different items with the Likert scale. The required data were collected using a questionnaire that validity and reliability were examined among a sample of 195 farmers living in the northern villages of Sirjan County. After calculating the social capital indicator and sustainable development indicator, we investigated the effect of social capital on various dimensions of sustainable agriculture using the Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations (SURE). 

Discussion and conclusion
According to the results of the research, the social capital indicator was calculated at 0.57 on average, and in terms of dimensions, trust is 0.55, participation and social relations is 0.58 and norms, and social cohesion is 0.60. The economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions of sustainable development were determined to be 0.44, 0.51, 0.49 and 0.40, respectively. The amount of economic and institutional dimensions is below average, which shows the instability of most of these dimensions among farmers. The other two dimensions are in the middle level. The results of seemingly unrelated regression equations showed that the variables of farmer age, years of experience in agriculture, net income of agriculture, social capital, participation in training courses and type of irrigation system have a positive and statistically significant effect on the economic dimension of sustainable agriculture. Variables of education level, membership in agricultural cooperatives, participation in training classes and social capital have a positive and significant effect on social sustainability, and the variables of type of irrigation system, social capital, net income and education have a significant positive effect on environmental sustainability. In addition, the results showed that farmers with higher education and those who are members of agricultural cooperatives feel more institutionally stable, and these variables have a positive effect on promoting institutional sustainability.
Low efficiency and productivity, the staggering cost of inputs, have left no income for them and have led to poor quality and welfare life for them. This has caused farmer dissatisfaction and has led young people to migrate to cities and work in industrial sectors. As it was observed, the variable of social capital has a positive effect on all four dimensions of stability, but its effect on institutional stability is not statistically significant.
Since the calculated social capital is not at a high level among farmers, besides its significance in sustainability, it is necessary to pay attention to proper planning to improve different dimensions of social capital and eliminate the existing shortcomings to achieve higher levels of sustainability. Effective training courses in rural areas are really important due to the lack of transportation facilities in farmers' living regions. In addition, the presence of skilled professionals and experts will increase the trust in the training among farmers. Creating suitable living facilities and equitable distribution of facilities in villages, improving infrastructure, and access of farmers' children to quality schools. The life expectancy and desire of farmers, especially young people, to stay in the villages will be increased when donors and rich farmers participate in improving living conditions in rural areas. 


Nahid Isa Nejad, Ali Akbar Najafi Kani , Alireza Khajeh Shakooei,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (4-2023)

Today, one of the country's tourism patterns is second homes tourism, often common in mountainous regions with mild regions. The second homes are primarily located in spectacular areas, recreational places, and on the outskirts of large and medium-sized cities. Rural tourism is a reliable source of income in many countries and has an increasing impact on improving rural households' economic and physical situation. The current study investigates the consequences of second homes tourism in mountainous villages near the metropolis of Tehran.
Researchers believe that households living elsewhere buy or rent second homes. Such homes are usually located in rural areas and are used for recreational purposes and are also called weekend homes and holiday homes.
Second homes usually have four characteristics:
- A private home that family and guests often use on weekends and holidays.
 -A private home that is alternately used as a holiday home.
- It is often purchased for retirement periods but is also used as a commercial property.
- Used as holiday homes, commercially as an investment, and usually by an agency. 

This study is applied with a descriptive and field descriptive method. According to the 1395 census, the statistical population of the current study is rural households living in 9 villages, totaling 5554 persons. 310 villages were chosen as the sample community using the Cochran algorithm, and data were analyzed using correlation analysis, Friedman, Kruskalvalis, and Linear regression in SPSS software.
Shemiranat is one of the counties of Tehran Province, considered an excellent tourism region of Iran, and consists of two districts: Lavasanat and Rudbar-e Qasran. According to the census of 2016, Rudbar-e Qasran District has a population of 17419. The Qasran Bastani region includes Oushan, Fasham, Darbandsar, Gajereh, and the villages at the foothill of Tochal to the western areas of the Jajrud River. Contrary to many peoples’ beliefs, the language of the people of Rudbar-e Qasran District in most neighborhoods, especially Meygun, Shahrestanak, Lalan, Zayegan, Ruteh, Garmabdar, Shemshak, and Darbandsar, is Mazandarani. 

Discussion and conclusion
The results of Chi-square, Spearman, and Kendall correlation analysis demonstrate that the construction of second homes has a substantial association with a 99 percent confidence level with physical changes in villages and improved economic indicators. Friedman's findings also rank the most effective elements in recruiting tourists and increasing second houses. Kruskal-Wallis's findings reveal that second-home tourism affects all communities analyzed in terms of physical and economic characteristics and that they are all similar. The results of the linear regression test reveal that, depending on the variables evaluated, the investigated components are acceptable and significant. The coefficient of determination indicates that around 95% of the development is determined by the variables analyzed, with only about 5% depending on variables not discovered in this study.
The second homes are part of the tourism industry, which aims to use and introduce natural, cultural, historical, and other resources in the region to tourists to create opportunities for tourism development, which creates business in rural areas. Second homes can also be considered a potential product that elevates the level of society and puts the country in the tourism industry. 
In this regard, sustainable tourism emerged as the only solution to save nature and human beings. From this perspective, the paradigm of sustainable tourism examines tourism across borders. The tourism industry creates a triangular relationship between the host community, their territory, and the guest community (tourists). The goal is to alleviate any pressure or crises that may arise and achieve a long-term balance between all three parties.
Javad Vahabi, Mohammad Baset Ghoreishi , Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (4-2023)

The concept of water resources management changes over time with various factors, such as environmental knowledge, technology, and recognition of the difference in the value of water resources. Water resources management is affected by various economic, social, political, cultural, and technical factors. Accordingly, the concept of sustainable management of agricultural water resources has been raised in response to the issues of inappropriate use of water resources and harmful environmental effects and the traditional agricultural economy. Reducing water resources increases the cost of new water resource provision, and usually, developing countries cannot meet these costs. Therefore, the optimal consumption and the correct management of the supply and demand of existing water resources are proposed to meet the economic cost. Water will be an effective agent. Many scientists have studied the relationship between water and economic development from different aspects, for example, in the case of natural disasters like floods and droughts. The results of studies have shown that available water for agriculture and economic development, and investment in water infrastructure, especially in the agricultural sector, reduce poverty in some African countries. Development generally means improving the material and spiritual level of human society and creating suitable conditions for a healthy life for all members of society. According to this concept, development includes economic, social, political, and cultural aspects, which include quantitative and qualitative changes. The desired purpose of development is to improve the quality of life for everyone. Therefore, the effort to achieve development should be in a way that includes the interests of most people.

This article is a survey-based analysis, which means it focuses on a small portion of society, specifically village officials and farmer households in the study area. The necessary data was collected through a questionnaire. The statistical population of the research is the villages of the central floodplain of Gilan, which includes village officials and farmer households of the villages of the study area. 384 questionnaires were randomly completed. Then, the questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS software and with relevant statistical tests.

Discussion and conclusion
The results showed that, according to 50% of respondents, agricultural water resources management has a moderate effect on increasing the diversity of agricultural activities, 46.8% on increasing purchasing power and housing construction, and 42.2% on reducing costs. Production in the agricultural sector is considered low. From the perspective of 27.6% of respondents, the effect of agricultural water resource management on reducing production costs in the agricultural sector is high, and 44.3% has a moderate effect on the area under cultivation of agricultural products. According to the survey, 25.6% of respondents believe that the impact of agricultural water resource management on expanding the cultivation area of agricultural products is minimal. Out of the respondents, 38.3% believe that agricultural water resources management moderately improves their satisfaction with life in the village, while 29.7% think it also moderately enhances their satisfaction.
Additionally, 30.5% of the respondents stated that agricultural water resources management has significantly impacted increasing attention toward transformation industries in agriculture. It has been found through research that managing agricultural water resources has significant effects on various aspects of agriculture and rural communities. Specifically, it has a 34.7% impact on agricultural production growth, a 29.4% impact on agricultural output increase, a 50.3% impact on rural employment generation, and a 50.11% impact on the income and well-being of villagers in the central plains of Gilan Province.

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