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Showing 10 results for Environment

Amir Saffari,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2013)

Nowadays, environmental hazards and waste mismanagement are being considered as one of the fundamental problems in the country .This issue severely shows itself in rural areas. These areas experience some changes in the way of life comparing the past. Therefore, waste management is very important consideration .Environmental pollution and as a result rural health jeopardy issue demands an appropriate waste management program. This study has applied and survey nature. It aims to propose appropriate waste strategies regarding Ojarood Germy in Ardebil province. EFE and IFE matrices were constructed after identification of the environmental factors. This study is based on interview and questionnaires technique .As such, 214 persons were extracted out of statistical society .They were asked to rank the magnitude of each factor. Final score related to internal and external factors were 2.45 and 2.69 respectively that indicate the presence of poor waste management. Taking into consideration the score, this study demands the application of conservative SWOT strategy regarding QSPM. Taking into account the attraction scores, the utilization of the organic matters for the purpose of fertilizer production and its resultant job offer, income and rural sustainability are among the most recommended strategies with high scores.

Hamed Ghader-Marzi, Bita Zarea-Mamaghani, Kramtallh Ziyari,
Volume 2, Issue 5 (12-2013)

The quality of urban environment is being considered as on the fundamental concerns and challenge as far as the urban planning and management is concerned. This study taking into consideration its title aims to first evolve the satisfaction level of settlers regarding the quality of their environment and second to propose some measures in order to improve it. The achievement of this goal demands application of dwellers satisfaction approach as a research theoretical framework. Data were gathered through questionnaire. This in turn requires the application of SPSS multi variable correlation regression &T test and one way analysis of variance regarding data analysis.This study suggests that the level of quality of urban environment associated with Hasanabad and Nisar with average of 2.47 and 2.46 respectively compared with theoretical median (3) is lower.According to t statistic output, satisfaction level corresponding to quality of the settlers of annexed villages is not significant.These results well applied to objective and subjective indices pertaining to quality of rural settlements. However, at the second level according to multi variable regression analysis subjective indices compared with objective ones are more influential regarding satisfaction level.Based on third level of the model, sub-indices related to exterior part of the rural dwelling, satisfaction level pertaining to accessibility and access to facilities and services are more effective regarding overhead indices. Moreover, according to the results of one way analysis of variance regarding the determination of the degree of effectiveness of social - economic properties upon perception of quality of the settlements environment, there exists a significant difference regarding the perception of the of rural dwellings among all groups in both villages.Ultimately the results of component analysis confirm the critical model.

Hamid Jalalian, Hossein Dadgar,
Volume 2, Issue 6 (3-2014)

Environmental protection is being considered as one of the main dimensions of sustainable development. It is argued that other aspects of development directly and indirectly are associated with this issue. The major domains of Iran’s resources are located in rural areas. Thus preservation of these resources is the prime responsibility of rural settlements. Appropriate management and location of analysis regarding rural waste sanitation fields are being considered as prominent measures as far as rural environmental issue is concerned. Many methods and techniques are available for this type of location of analysis. Flexibility and evolutionary nature of ordering weighing average technique (OWA), led to application of this method. Moreover, Fuzzy as well as GIS techniques were used for this type of locational analysis in Vill of Qaleh Dareh-C in Makoo County. This in turn demands selection of 11 indices. The results using different models of OWA were classified in seven classes. This study suggests that taking into account low risk, balance and accuracy issues shown in different maps, OWA is a very good option and is capable of determining 21.5 km2 domains as a prime location for installing west sanitation in the study area.

Lida Sharafi, Amir-Hossein Ali-Baygi,
Volume 4, Issue 12 (9-2015)

In recent years, increase in demand as a result of world population and industrialization lead to demand for the use of natural resources. This issue causes environmental problems and challenges. Therefore, sustainable development is considered by different researchers. Sustainable development has various dimensions such as economic, social, cultural, political and environmental ones. Regarding modern trend in sustainable development, all dimensions are considered in relation to the issue of environmental dimension of development and the environment protection and its resources issue is one of the important dimensions in sustainable development. Other developmental dimensions have direct or indirect relation to this dimension. Considering this, rural regions have high degree of dependency to these natural resources to supply their basic needs. Therefore, to achieve national development objectives, environmental sustainability in these regions is of great importance to prevent desertification, confront with dangers caused by drought, prevent soil erosion and degradation, maintain natural resources and also microclimates. However, in many villages of the country, the environment is facing severe threats such as desertification, deforestation and destruction of meadows, agricultural land-use change, groundwater decline, and landslide and so on. So, regarding to existing problems in the villages of the country and environmental challenges, the necessity and importance of the environmental status assessment in rural regions is obvious before any planning. Accordingly, this study has been done to present a pattern for assessment of rural environmental sustainability in Shervineh village.
This study is a descriptive correlational survey. All Shervineh residents took part in this study (N=840), in which 264 people were chosen randomly according to Bartlett Table as the statistical samples. For data collection, questionnaires had been used in this study. On the whole, 185 questionnaires had been collected and analyzed. The validity of questionnaire has been determined by many specialists in the fields like rural development and environmental field and the content validity of the questionnaire has been confirmed. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alfa test has been used in which the reliability coefficient of 90% is achieved. Data analysis has been done by the use of SPSS 16 and LISREL 8.8 and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA).
Discussion and Conclusion
The results of factor analysis shows that six factors (implementation of environmental plans in the village, participation of all villagers, contribution of people and local institutions and also national organization supporting the environmental issues, environmental beliefs, training necessary reactions in the case of destructive activities against environment, having prior experiences and indigenous knowledge of the rural environment) are effective in environmental sustainability assessment. Each of these factors is discussed according to their importance in environmental sustainability. Participation of all villagers is a necessary and an important factor to achieve rural environmental sustainability. In this regard, findings by Golshiri and Saraee (2010), Ahmadvand and Nooripour (2010) and Masika & Joekes (1997) showed that promoting public participation in the process of development, protection, restoration and sustainable utilization of natural and environmental resources are important to achieve a sustainable environmental development. One of the indicators in assessment of environmental sustainability is indigenousknowledge and prior experiences of rural environment which are confirmed by factor analysis. In fact, indigenous knowledge is suitable for environment management and this is because of knowledge coming out of the natural environment of the region. Another factor is environmental beliefs and values (ethics) of villagers which provides a base to development of environmental sustainability. In this regard, findings by Menatizadeh and Zamani (2012), and Ogunkan (2010) showed that ethical norms are the factors which have the most impressions on the formation process of environmental sustainability attitude. Contribution of groups, local institutions and national organizations supporting environmental issues is a factor which provides a base to environmental sustainability. This findings are confirmed by Hosseini (2002) and Sadough Vanini et al (2008) studies. According to these researchers' findings, to achieve environmental sustainability, local institution's activities are needed. Factor analysis results showed that implementation of environmental plans in the village is necessary for the environmental sustainability assessment. Various studies (Mozafar (2008); Safaeeyan (2002); Motiee Langeroudi and Yari (2010)) showed that implementation of development plans caused negative environmental impacts. This is the case, because the codification and implementation of these plans should be the result of studies by various specialists meanwhile plan makers and plan executors act according to available information and superficial observations. One of the indicators in environmental sustainability assessment is holding educational workshops to disscuss consequences of destructive activities against environment. In this case, we should know that one of the best strategies to overcome environmental challenges is training and educating human force with desired environmental attitude and corresponded to sustainability. In this field, Lichtenberg & Zimmerman (1999) and Abbaspour (2003) believed that getting knowledge and information from different sources is effective on environmental behavior.

Fatemeh Kiyani, Rahime Ansari, Ahmad Taghdisi,
Volume 4, Issue 12 (9-2015)

On one hand, economic development as a fundamental section in every country's policies has a close relation to industry and technology, and on the other hand it is related to environmental pollutions. Considering the fundamental role of industry in the process of development in developing countries, the relation between industrial activities and the rate of pollution caused by industry section are of great importance. According to potential and capacities of cement industry, it can causes a tremendous improvement and flourish in terms of other "requisite" and "prerequisite" activities as well as its critical role in the case of the "volume" and the "value" of non-oil export, however, to reach these economic benefits, environmental damages caused by cement companies are inevitable. These damages include air pollution, water pollution and pollution of underground water in the region and so on. Emissions from the cement industry include particles, compounds of carbon, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, among them particles are more important because they are more produced and emitted in the environment.
This study is a descriptive-analytical survey, and questionnaires had been used as the data collection method. The population in this study includes 2300 residents of Shahanjari village, according to Morgan's Table, 175 people had been chosen randomly as the study population. Questionnaires as the tool of data collection are divided to four parts and include environmental, agricultural, social-cultural and economic issues to assess impacts of Cement Company on environment and economic (21 variables). For data analysis, Frequency Distribution Tables, Average Statistics, Factor Analysis method and Correlation Coefficient had been used.
Discussion and Conclusion
Increase in regional employment rate and also economic development is the important positive impacts of Cement Company in this region. Of course, Cement Company have negative impacts on the region including destruction of a large part of agricultural lands in the village, yield decline of agricultural production and increase in the number of people with respiratory diseases. Although, farming is the main occupation, it is also severely affected by the company using up the water resources in the region and agriculture is confronted to the decline in production. Certainly, economic impacts of Cement Company are more than these and other positive economic impacts of Cement Company include increase in facilities and services in the region, more opportunities to get second job in the region, and improvement of the villagers' income. From a social point of view, other considered issues as the result of the construction of this company are residents' satisfaction, improvement of rural roads, decrease in rural-urban migration which have positive impacts in the region on the long term and this leads to population stability and avoiding irregular migration. In conclusion, it can be said that on one hand, Cement Company had a lot of positive impacts, on the other hand it caused reduction of farmers' income which is the direct result of Cement Company location, farming is encountered with some problems, it reduces green area expansion in the region and most of farmers are not satisfied of these conditions.

Tahereh Sadeghloo, Hamdollah Sojasi Ghidari, Vahid Riahi,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)

Rural industrialization has been greatly discussed by researchers in recent studies of rural planning and development. It is due to its positive effects of economic, social and infrastructural factors. Moreover, researches are looking for ways to analyzed approaches to reduce harmful environmental impacts of industrial projects, as destructive life factors of geographical territory, in rural areas. For example, according to Misra and Chyvta (1990); rural industrialization and the prevalence of non-agricultural activities can seriously affect the increase of social welfare and providing essential goods and services for rural households. Experiences by several countries prove the fact that every structural change that happens because of industrialization, not only has an important economic role in rural areas, but also led to self-repulsive economy, as well. In addition to studying positive economic, social and physical aspects, it is needed to do some preparatory studies on negative eco-environmental effects of rural industrialization for proper siting of such industries to reduce its harmful eco-environmental and human effects and improve spatial planning.
In this study, we have used a new approach to investigate rural industrialization and the
establishment of large mining – extractive industries in rural areas. Todays, thanks to villages forming a wide range of local-spatial area of the country, they have rich mineral resources in their geographical territory which their extraction may cause economic-infrastructure effects as well as other negative eco-environmental effects such as the changing use of agricultural land, soil and water pollution, vegetation loss, and landscape change over time. Two main questions of the research are 1) In terms of sustainability, how is the economic, social and environmental status of surrounding villages of Zanjan cement plant? 2) How is the current situation of ecoenvironmental effects of minning- extractive industry of Zanjan cement factory on surrounding rural areas, according to ICOLD,and Prometea techniques.
This study is an analytical explanation using library and field study. Field data have been collected by questionnaires after the identification of variables. Then, the required data have been collected in the intended study area. Samples have been managed in two different social levels: 36 people from local experts (Council and village head assistants) using census method for ICOLD matrices, and 295 individuals from the head of the households selected among local people of villages to assess eco-environmental effects of using Prometea multivariate technique in villages by the use of Cochran formula of Alpha= 0.05. The already designed questionnaires have been modified in ICOLD matrices covering several factors of physio-chemical, biological, socio-economic, and cultural infrastructure environments that include 41sub criteria, totally. Collected data have been finally analyzed by ICOLD environmental assessment method and Promote multivariate techniques.
Discussion and conclusion
One of the new challenges facing rural planning when it is getting applied, is the presence of two viewpoints: environmentalism, and rural industrialization. Villages are accumulation points of environmental resources that, according to the theory of Sustainable Development, it is essential to protect them. In addition, we aim at diversifying economic sector by supporting rural industrial projects. Integration of the two approaches needs the evaluation of environmental effects of industrial activities to help moderate the intensity of environmental effects of industrial projects in rural areas. In this research, we are intended to study industrial mining extractive project of Zanjan cement factory, located and operated in a rural district, to analyze its eco-environmental effects on rural areas. Results from ICOLD demonstrates that its eco-environmental effects vary by distance, i.e., the nearer the villages are, the more they will be threatened by these effects, or vice versa.
Results from promote technic confirm the same. Since, villages in disturbed areas within the distance of less than 5 kilometers from the factory or less than 1 kilometer from the communication route to raw stone mining site, show the highest level of eco-environmental instability. These villages include; Majid Abad (rated at 81%), Zarand (rated as 73%) and Mazidabad (rated at 67%), respectively. These villages are close to the factory and to the passage of vehicles carrying raw stone. Much of the physical area of the factory is located in agricultural land of two villages of Majid Abad and Mazidabad. Moreover, wind direction of the area mostly causes much of the pollution from factory dust distributes in other agricultural areas of MajidAbad. Another village which its eco-environment has been recently affected is Zarand, located in a foothill area near to the raw stone mining site. Dust from loading raw stones, noise pollution caused by the breakage of the rock, animals and wildlife breaking out of the area, and destruction of crops and plants are among the major environmental damage in this area. Thus, we suggest to reduce environmental pollution from factories in rural areas by reviewing some ways of factory activities such as transportation of raw materials, methods used for the extraction of raw stones, development of appropriate transport infrastructures, installation of air pollution controlling systems, increase in the plantation of more green spaces within the margins of the factory, good management of wastewater and their disposal system.

Esmaeil Najafi, Yaqub Abdali, Maryam Beyranvandzadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (2-2021)

One of the major and fundamental issues in the field of spatial planning is balanced development, which can be raised in the form of balanced development of sectors or regions. In line with the social justice policy, as the central aim of the country's development plans, it is necessary to study the situation of different regions in terms of distribution and the extent of having different environmental indicators and consider the shortcomings and inadequacies for future development plans. Such studies can show the situation of different geographical areas from a comparative point of view and classify them in terms of development facilities and bottlenecks, also, determine their development priorities. In this way, by assessing the potential level of the regions, their facilities and capabilities can be presented from different perspectives and the necessary tools can be provided to ascertain the decision for allocation of different resources in the territory. The aim of this study is to level, classify and spatial zoning of rural poverty in Hormozgan Province using environmental indicators and combined indicators. These indicators have been used to rank the rural areas of Hormozgan Province based on the level of environmental potential. The results of this study can be effective for decision-making officials and ultimately, the development of social justice.
Research Methods
The present research applied-developmental in terms of purpose. In respect of the type of methods it is a combination of descriptive-analytical and correlational methods. The data used were collected through statistics and information published from the identification of settlements and statistical yearbook published in 2016, meteorological data, topographic maps, geology and faults, etc. For data analysis, McGranhan method or correlation coefficient method was used. Furthurmore, calculating the sum of points has been used to weight the indicators. The fuzzy scaling method is one of the most common and important methods for normalizing stability indices, which is the basis of many other methods and is also mentioned in the sources with titles such as deprivation coefficient. Indicators with a positive aspect (ascending) and indicators with a negative aspect (descending) have different computational bases. This method has also been used to determine deprivation coefficients and the Combined Human Development Index in the UN Human Development Report. This method also uses Spearman correlation coefficient. Kramer correlation coefficient has been used to express the degree of correlation between the two variables studied independent variables (environmental factors) and dependent variables (economic development).
Discussion and Conclusion
Based on the calculated combined environmental index score, 92 villages of Hormozgan province are located in 5 classes and zones. In 13.04% of the rural areas, the combined index score is less than 0.913 and in these rural areas, the environmental potential for development is very low. In 9.78% of the rural areas, the combined index score is between 0.914 to 1.095 and in these rural areas, the environmental potential for development is low. 38.04% of the rural areas in terms of environmental potential are in the range of 1.096 to 1.279, which is at an average level. Combined environmental index score in 28.26% of rural areas is between 1.280 to 1.462 and these rural areas have great potential in terms of environmental indicators. In 10.87% of the rural areas, the score of the combined environmental index is 1.463 and more. These rural areas have a great environmental potential. Among the rural districts of Hormozgan Province, Koukherd and Fatoueh Rural Districts are from Koukherd and central district of Bastak County, Gafer, Darabsar, Jakdan and Sardasht Rural Districts of Gaofroparmon, Gohran and central district in Bashagard County; Bandar Charak Rural District of Shibkuh District in Bandar Lengeh County; Rovidar Rural District of Rovidar District in Khamir County; Faryab Rural District of the central district in Rudan County and Cheragabad, Karian and Gorband Rural District of Tokhoor and central districts of Minab County are among the rural districts that are in a low situation of environmental capabilities and potentials. As the results suggest, the highest percentage of frequency is related to the level of moderate and low environmental poverty and the lowest percentage is related to rural areas with high environmental poverty and very low environmental poverty. That is, out of 92 rural areas in Hormozgan Province, 12 villages are very high in poverty, 9 villages are very poor, 35 villages are moderately poor, 26 villages are low in poverty and 10 villages are very low in poverty.
The results suggest that there is a direct and significant relationship between environmental variables and rural economic development. The significant level (0.000) indicates the relationship between independent variables (environmental factors) and dependent (economic development). Rainfall, water resources, climate, land potential and natural hazards (earthquake and flood) are the most important environmental indicators that can play a role in limiting the economic development of rural areas in Hormozgan Province.
The main natural environmental limitations for rural economic development in Hormozgan Province are the following:
  • Low precipitation with unfavorable time and space distribution, hence lack of water resources, as a result, it is difficult to regenerate the natural forests and pastures and return to normal balance.
  • Extension and multiplicity of saline formation along with alkalinity, which has made a large part of the province's water and soil resources saline and inutile.  
  • Risks caused by natural disasters, the influx of dunes and desertification with a negative inclination in pasture production and lack of investment to protect forests and pastures, water and soil and rural fuel supply.
  • Continuation of drought and its negative consequences in agriculture, urban and rural development.
  • Existence of unfavorable weather conditions that cause severe depreciation of material capital and machinery compared to other regions of the country. Also, the biggest problem in rural employment is the inadequacy of income from economic activities (mainly agriculture and maritime). One of the most important strategies in the field of agriculture is the development of greenhouse cultivation due to the conditions of water resources and shortages in this sector.

Asiey Ghorbani , Milad Joudi Damirchi, Naser Motiei,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (5-2022)

The first step in spatial planning is the recognition of the environment and its latent capabilities. However, planning for development, especially rural development, should be based on a real understanding of the potential and talents of rural areas. Evidently, a major factor implicated in the failure of rural development planning is the negligence of the environment; indeed, any geographical space has its own potential, capabilities, and facilities for development. Human communities cannot survive apart from economic, social, and physical factors and depend on nature, especially the environment, to meet their basic needs.

The research was an applied, non-experimental, library, and document based study with a quantitative paradigm. The statistical population was composed of rural areas in Isfahan Province of Iran. The study was conducted at the county level so that 24 counties in Isfahan Province were investigated in terms of rural economic development. The research had two sets of variables.  a dependent variable, i.e., rural economic development, and independent variables including human resources development, access to infrastructural factors, and environmental capability, which were all quantitative. The data were both quantitative and imagery, collected by the library and document method. The ecological capability section was analyzed by Dr. Makhtoum’s multi-factor evaluation method. The criteria of the ecological capability were assigned with weights using the pairwise comparison technique of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Then, the criteria were integrated using the weighted linear combination method. Ultimately, the final fuzzy map was classified based on the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the value of its pixels in the ENVI5.1 software package. The aggregated index calculation method was employed to estimate other parameters including rural economic development, human resources development, and access to infrastructural factors. Eventually, the multivariate regression method was applied to explore the effect of independent variables on rural economic development. The software packages used in the research included SPSS and MS-excel for statistical analyses and the calculation of aggregated indices, Super Decisions for assigning weights to the environmental capability criteria by the pairwise comparison technique, ENVI5.1 for standardizing information layers of the criteria and categorizing land-uses based on the mean and SD of the pixel values, ArgGIS 10.1 for aggregating and preparing information layers, estimating the areas of each section, and producing the output maps, and SHAZAM for performing the regression analysis and testing the estimator hypotheses of ordinary least squares (OLS).

Discussion and Conclusion
According to the results, Isfahan County had the highest and Semirom County had the lowest rate of economic development in their rural areas. Naeen and Dehaqn Counties showed the highest and lowest levels of human resources development, respectively. The highest and lowest access to the infrastructural factors were related to the counties of Khomeynishahr and Semirom, respectively and Chadegan and Khour-va-Biabanak Counties had the highest and lowest ecological capabilities, respectively. A closer look at the results revealed that although some counties such as Chadegan, Bueen Miyandasht, and Semirom had high ecological potential; however, they were at the lowest level of the economic development of rural areas. In contrast, counties like Isfahan, Ardestan, Aran-va-Bidgol, and Naeen with weaker ecological capabilities were at higher levels of economic development in their rural areas.
Based on the analysis of the effect of variables on economic development with multivariate regression, the coefficient of determination (R2) was estimated at 0.806 for the model. The statistic shows that 80.6% of the variance in rural economic development is accounted for by three variables of ecological capability, human resources development, and infrastructural factors and 19.4% is related to other factors not included in the model. The results of the regression analysis show that the relative importance or effectiveness of the ecological capability is 0.23 whereas the relative importance of the access to infrastructural factors is 0.65 and the relative importance of the human resources development is 0.35. According to the results, rural economic development in Isfahan province is mainly affected by the variable of access to infrastructural factors and least affected by ecological capability. This is an unexpected result because the rural economy is based on ecological resources and capability since most of the people in the rural areas are employed in agriculture and related activities. Also, the results showed that the variances in the three independent variables are not consistent, reflecting the fact that the policies adopted by development planners have not distributed infrastructure endowments in accordance with environmental potential. If they were distributed proportionally, regions with higher environmental capability should have had more infrastructural facilities. Therefore, infrastructure development and credit distribution are influenced by factors other than environmental potential.
In general, if capabilities and facilities are considered for rural economic development, it will be possible to realize economic development in villages and achieve an optimal level of economic development in these areas. It is, therefore, necessary to adopt policies and strategies for rural development that are consistent with environmental potential.


Hassan Afrakhteh,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (12-2022)

The purpose of the article is to understand the relationship between the institutional system and knowledge creation, and this question is answered as to how and under what conditions the institutional system can strengthen innovation and knowledge creation. In this regard, first, knowledge and innovation have been introduced from the perspective of a relational paradigm, then the relationship between institutions and the development of knowledge and innovation, its conditions and factors have been analyzed. Relying on Gidden's structural theory, it is argued that the institution, on the one hand, shapes the processes of economic interaction, and on the other hand, it is formed by the processes of economic interaction. As a result, a paradoxical problem arises, and that, on the one hand, institutions are structures that shape human actions, and on the other hand, to create innovation and knowledge, institutional changes must be made and institutions that encourage innovation and knowledge creation must be created, that is, the actions of actors are formed by institutions. So, how can actors change the same institutions? In other words, how can people change an institution whose rationality and actions are bound to the same institution?
But under what conditions do emergent institutional changes take place? To study the necessary conditions for emerging institutional changes, the role of structure versus agency is discussed. Using the structural theory of Giddens (1984), a concept of institutions is presented that enables the analysis of how institutions simultaneously shape economic interaction processes and are shaped by them. This framework opens new opportunities for integrating micro and macro phenomena in the analysis of economic action and technological changes in the spatial landscape.

In this article, related articles have been collected using the key words institution, knowledge creation, and relational paradigm. Then, the collected articles have been analyzed using a narrative review method, and finally, a conclusion has been drawn.

Discussion and Conclusion
Understanding innovation requires interdisciplinary research and the application of different methods at different levels. Institutions are understood from the point of view of social science and it is different from the view that considers institutions as "black boxes". In this view, institutions are not defined as simple regulations, laws or organizations, but are seen as relatively stable and closed social interaction between economic enterprises, based on which laws and regulations are expanded in conditional ways. Although the institutions may represent the inherent purposes of the laws, in practice it is found that they may not conform to the laws to some extent. Therefore, laws are fundamentally different from institutions. Laws are the only possible conditions for the emergence and transformation of socio-economic institutions from a spatial perspective. Because of such fundamental contingency, the effects of laws on economic outcomes can be unintended, unpredictable, and even counterproductive.
There are three arguments about the relationship between institutional change and technological change:
A, institutional hysteresis;
b. Perpetuation of inefficient institutions; and
C. Establishment of inefficient institutions.
Regarding the relationship between institutions and economic results, the basic question is, at what level do institutions contribute to economic development and innovation, and under what conditions may the institutional system cause problems in the process of economic development and innovation. Van Warden's (2001) study on the relationship between legal institutions and the innovation of national economies shows that institutions are an important tool for reducing uncertainty. Hence, when institutional domains reduce uncertainty, citizens are more likely to accept the risk of innovation.
However, it is acknowledged that the empirical state of knowledge about institutions, institutional changes and their interrelationships with economic, social and technological phenomena is still in its early stages.
 The article has shown that when actors want to change existing institutions and create new institutions, they must change the existing institutional environment. Since, existing institutions contain benefits for many actors, institutional entrepreneurs have to mobilize resources and develop specific capabilities in order to promote legitimacy and righteousness for change and to convince others to adopt new practices. As a result, an initial institution is formed, which becomes established over time and becomes an accepted institution, which is explained in the article with examples.

Sona Habibi, Sadegh Salehi,
Volume 11, Issue 42 (1-2023)

Rural environmental protection has received increasing attention in recent years. The main issues include environmental pollution, land degradation, resource depletion, biodiversity loss, income loss, and public health risks. These issues are particularly acute in villages and remote regions of developing countries. Rural areas often lack the required resources to take needed action to protect the environment. Moreover, many management strategies associated with centralized and urban regions are unsuitable for implementation in rural areas. Although human interventions could degrade ecosystem sustainability, appropriate management could preserve the sustainability of rural ecosystems. The reverse of this case is also true. That is, inadequate management protection of natural resources also causes widespread destruction. Iran's environment, especially in rural areas, is as same as other countries, and in some cases, the factors of environmental degradation have expanded.
Various natural resources, such as water, forest land, pasture and mountains, are unique features of the villages in Gilan Province. However, the destruction of nature is also increasing as an environmental threat.
In the meantime, some degradation happened in the environment of the villages in the west of Gilan (Tavalesh), which are located between the shores of the Caspian Sea and the Talash mountain range and are mainly scattered in four mountainous, foothill, plain and coastal areas. It seems that the destructive state of the natural environment is mainly caused by destructive human behavior. Moreover, these behaviors occur in a context. Therefore, the primary contexts and conditions of occurrence of these destructive behaviors and their causes should be analyzed and investigated.
A deep understanding of economic-management mechanisms of the formation and expansion of environmental issues in rural society is vital for the researcher to enter the research field.
The main question of the study is what are the economic-management contexts affecting the formation of environmental problems in the studied rural community? According to the grounded theory method, the sub-questions are: What economic and management factors have formed the environmental problems in society? What are the central phenomena of environmental issues? What are the strategies for overcoming environmental problems? Moreover, what are the consequences of these strategies for society?

In this qualitative research, grounded theory and the systematic approach of Strauss and Corbin were used. The study population consisted of experts and officials in natural resources and watershed management, agricultural jahad management, environmental protection organization, village council, rural municipality and villagers. Thirty-five people were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected by a semi-structured interview and analyzed by using a coding technique. First, based on open coding, the main concepts of the research were obtained. In axial coding, by referring again to the text of the interviews, the factors affecting the environmental problems were identified and extracted from the interviewees' point of view. Then the main categories were obtained by merging one or more component categories. Finally, selective coding was done to integrate and refine the data to discover the main phenomenon and draw a paradigm model. The validity and reliability were evaluated based on control or validation by the participants.

Discussion and conclusion
Based on open coding, four main concepts of "unstable income", "unemployment", "production stagnation", and "denaturalization" as economic contexts and three concepts of "bad organization", "lack of specialization", and "mismanagement" as contexts for mismanagement creating environmental problems was extracted.
The main phenomenon is "environmental destruction and ecosystem instability". The background conditions are "natural situation, economic shortcomings and management challenges". The causal conditions affecting environmental destruction and ecosystem change are: "single-product economy", "organizational and managerial inefficiency", "organizational divergence", "dependent livelihood", and "unemployment". Furthermore, intervening conditions were identified as organizational involvement, lack of expert force, land sale, small ownership and small industries. Interactive strategies include: managerial integration, reforming human resources, defining alternative livelihoods, training appropriate to livelihoods, syndicating rural productions, revising national land laws, and determining national and personal land boundaries with the correct implementation of the Cadastre plan.
In rural areas, the natural situation, economic shortcomings and management challenges affect environmental degradation and ecosystem instability. The more the villagers have diverse natural resources and more access to natural resources, the greater their desire to use nature to generate income. In rural areas, the predominance of the single-product economy increases livelihood dependence on natural resources. The inefficiency and supervisory weakness of the responsible and custodian organizations, which is often represented in the form of organizational divergence, facilitates the process of environmental destruction. 
Finally, the final statement from the paradigm model is that in rural areas, a set of economic-management factors affects environmental degradation and ecosystem instability. Environmental degradation and ecosystem instability appear in the context of the convergence of economic and management fields. This way, the "environmental multi-causal convergence" theoretical model was conceptualized.


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