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Esmaeil Ali Akbari, Mostafa Taleshi, Nayyereh Haj Amini,
Volume 4, Issue 13 (11-2015)

Changes in spatial patterns and its structural and functional dynamics which is apparently obvious within physical links and relationships of cities and rural and urban network is fundamentally one of the outcomes of forces that contribute to the controlling process of actual mechanism of capital absorption, its flow, work forces, and population. Such forces play a significant role in excess flow and changes made in the structure of spatial system of regional network and its reconstruction, especially in urban networks. Results coming from changes in urban structures usually appear in form of physical development of structures and physical and functional changes which can cause alternative changes in the spatial structure of regional network system and urban network in terms of regional space and its peripheral relations. So, studying urban mechanisms can effectively help us in developing an efficient analytical framework or strategy of space reconstruction just in case that we try to study changes and understand forces and effective process on the construction and reconstruction of urban systems. This point of view can enable us to justify organization and reorganization of urban networks in regional space.
Considering thinking direction of political economic (as the fundamental theory), this research is investigating the rate of socioeconomic changes and basic mechanisms which lead to the creation and transferring of patterns of spatial organization in regional space of Kerman. Regarding the nature of the subject and its components, making use of analyticaldescriptive method as an excellent approach was something inevitable. The official definition of statistical population of this research includes of urban centers of Kerman Province. Theoretical and quantitative information have been collected from scientific and statistical resources through documentary method. To explain and interpret regularities and rules of distribution of the size of cities and changes related to regional and urban network system, quantitative method of rank - size and prime city have been used to explain spatial hierarchy and intra city relations and links.
Discussion and conclusion
Local economic relations, excess flow and reconstruction of urban mechanism in regional space of Kerman County have all occurred within a process of three different periods: First period: Rural economic, excess occasions and urban dominant: In the initial years of land reforms and within this time, excess possession of landlords was forming the foundations of different methods of social management in spatial organization of the area. Of course, the domination of the biggest city of the area (Kerman), has been the most prominent form of spatial reflection of urban network. Within this period of time, urbanization has been gradually progressing in Kerman Province. It should be noted that the imbalanced growth of urban mechanism is one of the consequences of inequalities in agricultural sectors and among rural areas that has resulted into imbalanced distribution of regional space. In addition, it has caused all the privileges connected to the concentration of capital, facilities, activities and population to be allocated to the metropolis of the area. The functional feature which is particularly dominant is known as the basic feature of exploitation capitalism which is applied in villages and small cities of the area by Kerman. Second period: Changes in local economic network, the rise of oil rents, and related urbanization: After land reforms and formation of rentier state, national oil surplus has had a great impact upon the construction of the environment of the area. From the time of the complete destruction of local and regional networks used in order to exploit excess rural resources, a series of aggressive actions was begun in the city of Kerman via the absorption of extra mines and industries which was not merely resulted from production. Actually, it was kind of ownership royalty appointed by urban governance to make higher amount of production, activities and concentration. Excess industrial-mining flow is mainly departed into the central area. A great amount of it has been grasped by the regional metropolis of Kerman. Financial mechanisms of budgeting, credit distribution, development programs and distribution of bank deposits by the government are examples of other forms of investment in this period. These forms have made unequal spatial concentration and heterogeneous current of national surplus in urban networks to be possible. A great amount of excess flow is dominantly and unequally devoted to Kerman through development budget and bank deposits. Patterns related to the velocity of money and surplus unequal concentration not only reflected over the spatial organization of settlement system (space of area) in forms of imbalanced development, but has also constructed and reconstructed a new but unequal networks of cities and rural- urban areas within the same space. Third period: Urban changes and excess absorption: Since 1370s, urban transformations caused inequalities in excess absorption, excess flow, and excess accumulation in urban networks through the creation of new frameworks. In this way, new imbalanced forms have gotten expanded in regional space of the area. In this period, the process of urbanization was the main reason of using rents (excess). Excess absorption was also done through these urban changes and transformations. The mostly used rent-seeking structures are made through space creation, high profit-making plans of urban development, designing and performing noncommercial projects by private section and state actors which can lead into the production of value and surplus value. The implementation of these kinds of project which are considered as success tools for urban management in competitions for a closer and longer approaching to rents are the most significant factors affecting urban transformations to absorb and make an unequal excess flow within the cities. Considering this, the real strategy of regional integration and reconstruction of regional and urban networks based on declining hegemonic relations in the metropolis and availability of equal chances of development for networks staff must be relied on a special pattern via which we can provide situations of employment generation based on internal capacities of local economic growth in the bottom of the whole network together with eccentric growth of large urban nodes (Kerman) mixed with several developing old nods (Rafsanjan, Sirjan, Jiroft, Bam and Zarand). It seems obvious that a model like this cannot be effective without reviewing and rethinking of its structural relations and concepts and regulations of the hegemonic process of national surplus.

Morteza Mokhtari, Moammadreza Ghaedi Far, Roholla Mirmahmoodi, Amir Mousaei, Somayeh Naghavi, Hamid Bideshki, Ahmad Ali Sadeghi,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (4-2023)

Quantitative and qualitative improvement of the agricultural sector can increase production productivity, increase farmers' income and create a link between agricultural and non-agricultural poverty reduction programs. Solving or reducing problems and bottlenecks and managing challenges within this sector is necessary. The livestock industry is one of the main sectors of food production needed by humans. Among the various food items produced in the agricultural sector, protein items are essential. On the other hand, in addition to the production of protein foods, this industry plays a significant role in creating employment and providing new job opportunities through the completion of the food production and supply chain. It is impossible to fulfill this vital mission without identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of animal husbandry units and livestock breeders and formulating appropriate strategies to provide management solutions considering the limited resources in each region. The agricultural extension system is one of the main tools for developing the agricultural sector and empowering farmers. Educational and promotional programs are the primary means of realizing agricultural development goals and empowering livestock farmers. This research was carried out to follow the pattern of livestock farmers in livestock promotion training in the southern cities of Kerman.

The research method is descriptive, analytical, and based on quantitative and qualitative methods. The statistical population in this research included livestock breeders in the southern rural areas of Kerman Province, with approximately 250 units that had active livestock units in 2019. Cluster sampling was used to collect to avoid wasting time and saving financial resources. It should be noted that 100 animal husbandry units were selected from the sample farmers participating in training and promotion courses. After completing and collecting the questionnaires, statistical analysis was performed using the software Stata 12 software was used. Also, the generalized ordinal logit model was used to investigate the factors affecting the benefit of the farmers from educational and extension courses. When using the ordinal logit model, the coefficients are interpreted rather than directly interpreting the results. If the coefficient is positive, it means that the probability of being placed in one category increases while the probability of being placed in another category decreases. For this purpose, the interpretation of marginal effects should be used.
The ordinal logit model is based on a continuous latent variable, which is shown as follows:
yi*=βXi+εi                     -∞<yi*<∞           (1)
Suppose the variable yi is considered discrete and observable, representing different levels of livestock farmers' benefit. The relationship between the unobservable variable yi* and the observable variable yi is obtained from the ordinal logit model.
yi=1                        if          -∞< yi*<μ1    i=1,2,…,n

yi=2                        if          μ1< yi*<μ2    i=1,2,…,n
yi=3                        if          μ2< yi*<μ3    i=1,2,…,n
…..                             ….             …….                     ……
yi=n                       if          μt-1< yi*<∞    i=1,2,…,n            

Discussion and conclusion
According to the findings, several factors such as age, education level, satisfaction with sales and marketing strategies, attitude towards extension experts, primary occupation, and cost of animal feed significantly impact the advantages livestock breeders gain from attending educational and extension programs. Providing educational and promotional courses in different areas is a practical and effective method to enhance the knowledge and skills of villagers. These courses can greatly improve productivity and quality of life if they are conducted under favorable conditions and cater to participants' actual needs. This can also optimize the functioning of all agents within the extension education system. Therefore, the necessary arrangements should be considered for livestock farmers to access the facilities and inputs needed to apply and use promotional recommendations. Based on the information obtained in the present research, it can be concluded that due to the relatively high average age of livestock farmers in the south of Kerman province and considering the usefulness of participating in educational-promotional courses, regular holding of these courses with more emphasis on familiarity with veterinary procedures and livestock diseases, familiarity with food ingredients and animal nutrition management mainly, as well as familiarity with the marketing and sale of livestock products, livestock breeding, and the design of animal husbandry buildings and facilities to a lesser extent. The agenda of the deputy of the Livestock Production Improvement Organization should be placed in the south of Kerman Province. The effectiveness of educational and promotional programs and user satisfaction relies on the proper functioning of various components within the system. These include timely and accurate use of educational aids, relevant content that meets users' needs, and program planning that aligns with existing resources and user living conditions. In this regard, necessary arrangements should be made for access to the facilities and inputs needed for the livestock farmers of the south Kerman region to benefit from training and promotion courses.

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