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Hasanali Faraji Sabokbar, Nader Molaee, Bahram Hajari,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

The employment problem and the manpower in general, is a matter of great importance in economic issues. In the economy of Iran, employment is one of the main concerns of the economic policy makers. The analysis of the employment situations and its structure all over the country requires at thorough knowledge of the capacities and potential power of the regions and its combination in the areas, for an equal and balanced planning and employment in every region and areas. In order to plan and achieve the rural economic development, population is most important and even the main factor to consider, because the quantitative and qualitative changes in population has significant effects on this procedure and furthermore one of the most important issues about the population which should be considered is the employment for the provision of manpower employment can be so effective towards achievement of every countries’ development, thus the employment issue is a key and strategic issue in every economic society. Employment is the factor that gets all the mental and physical abilities of man to be applied that result in relaxation and obedience between people due to the disappearance of unemployment, preventing the migration, the use and development of exceptional talents and rise in the national gross income. The villages of the country having a lot of active force which can play an important role in the economic development, studying the spatial distribution of employment in the rural regions and planning based on that can be a way of economic development of the villages and results in the economic prosperity of the country. Since the economic activities (agriculture, industry, services) in general, and particularly the resources and facilities, have an undesirable concentration from the spatial distribution aspect, in Iran, every region requires especial programs according to its characteristics, in this regard we should identify the situation of different regions based on the suitable scientific methods, before any actions. Therefore, this paper is developed to evaluate the employment status of the major departments and groups of activity and their spatial distribution in the country. To this aim, basic parts which were exporting their workforce are identified divided into counties, using the locative quotient (LQ) index.
Research method:
The purpose of this study was to understand the conditions of the regions and the major groups of economic activity (agriculture, industry and services) in the rural parts of the country. The statistical sample for this study includes 394 counties which statistics were gathered during the 2011 general census of people and housing. Using the locative quotient (LQ), the basic areas or the exporters of the working force were identified in the country and the state, and the GIS software has been used to prepare the map of major activity groups.
Discussion and conclusion:
The results show that in agriculture, 55% of the counties of the country (215 counties) belong to the basic and the workforce exporting regions that mainly are in the West, North West and South East of the country. Since the suitable climate and soil in these regions, we can see most employment in the agricultural part in a way that they can send agricultural workforce to other regions. These regions have also an important role in the national economic development and by guiding the investments towards their agricultural part; we can help it to be more efficient in the economy of the country. In the industrial part, 26% of the counties of the country (103counties) are more than one which can be counted as basic and workforce exporting regions and are mainly is located in the states of Tehran, Mazandaran, Qom, Qazvin and the central and south parts of the country. These states have the potential to send industrial workforce to other regions, and because of the proximity to the capital, the existence of agricultural transformative industries and in some regions possession of the mines, these states have the most industrial employment in the country. These areas have a great part in the economy of the country and by financing this part and creation of employment opportunities and industrialization of the villages, their industry will prosper, that results in an industrial growth in the national economy. In the services part, 49 percent of the counties of the country (195 counties) have a locative quotient greater than one and are categorized as workforce exporter regions that are mainly located in the central, east north, west north and the south parts of the country. The reasons for the tendency of these areas of service activities include proximity to the borders and unsuitable natural conditions in some regions.

Hossein Karimzadeh , Aghil Khaleghi, Ahad Bashiri ,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (12-2022)

Rural development goals cannot be limited to agricultural and economic growth, and economic and social development needs to be balanced for fair income distribution and rapid creation of benefits from high levels of living. As a result, local planners should know the strength and weaknesses of the local economy. In addition, local economic development planners should know the status of the development of activities in the region and whether their distribution has a competitive advantage.
In this study, we aim to determine the employment status of major sectors and activity groups in Iranian rural areas from 2011 to 2016 and examine the entry and exit of the workforce. So the research questions are:
Which sectors have had the most negative and positive impact on the change in share and place of employment among the different economic sectors?
What was the status of different economic sectors at the level of the country's provinces during 2011-2016?
Has the activity in the agricultural sector faced positive growth from 2011 to 2016?

This study used the change-share method to analyze the employment status of the main sectors and groups of economic activity in Iranian rural areas of the provinces from 2011 through 2016. Also, the spatial coefficient index was used for the labour force's entry and exit conditions. Is. The data used in this study is based on the statistics of the Iran Statistics Center. 

Discussion and conclusion
According to Keynes, the government should intervene in the economy to achieve full employment. There is a direct relationship between the level of employment and the amount of production, which is related to the effective demand. The distribution of employees shows a growth of 226,590 people between 2011 and 2016. In the share of employment, the agricultural sector has decreased by about 0.1%, the industry sector's share was 2.6% with negative growth, and the service sector share increased by about 2.7%, which shows that the service sector has a high growth compared to other sectors. Regarding the Keynesian economic balance in employment, policymakers should change monetary policies, such as reducing the bank interest rate, and the assets, such as real estate, by imposing taxes on depreciated properties. 
The research results show that the rural areas of 13 provinces in the Agriculture, Industry, and Services sectors had basic activities in 2015 in more than ten rural areas. Also, the relative growth of economic sectors in the whole reference economy or the effect of industrial composition (IS) shows that the share of employment in the agricultural sector decreased from 50.4% to 50.3%. In addition, the provinces of Khorasan Razavi, West Azerbaijan and Fars had the highest losses, and the province Alborz, Qom and Semnan had the least losses of employment in the agricultural sector. On the other hand, the least losses in the industry sector were in the provinces of East Azerbaijan, Khorasan Razavi and Fars, and the most employment losses were in Qom, Semnan and Ilam. The increase in service sector employment in Mazandaran, Fars and Tehran provinces was the highest, while Qom, South Khorasan and Semnan Provinces had the lowest increase.
South Khorasan province had the best performance in terms of service sector increase. For the agriculture sector, Hormozgan, Kerman and Khuzestan provinces and Hormozgan and Alborz provinces had good performances in the industry sector. This implies that with the increase in the productivity gap between the production and service sectors, the working population moves from the industry and agriculture sectors to the service sector. The main reason for the expansion of services is the growth of information technology because of its role in solving the unemployment problem and developing the country's economy.
According to the results, the agricultural and industrial sectors in the country's rural areas have no relative advantage in employment. The agricultural sector, considered a non-core activity in the rural areas of Khuzestan province in 2011, became a core activity in 2016. In Fars, it changed from a core activity to a non-core activity. The industry sector in Ilam, Bushehr and Lorestan provinces has changed from non-core to core activity and in Khuzestan province, from core to non-core activity. The service sector changed from a non-core activity in Sistan and Baluchistan, and Qazvin provinces to a core activity. However, in Hamedan province, it changed from a core activity to a non-core activity.


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