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Showing 6 results for Participation

Hamid Barghi, Yousef Ghanbari, Mohammad Saeedi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2013)

Nowadays, rural councils are performing prominent role on rural development. It is argued that the creation of these bodies is among the major measures for organization of community participation regarding rural development. This study aims to investigate the role of rural Islamic council’s as well as the level of community participation upon rural development of Hossainabad in Najafabad. The research method is based on field work as well as questionnaire. It possesses descriptive-analytical nature. Statistical community is composed of two groups including households and member of rural councils. The sample size turns out to be 255 which were extracted by random sampling technique. As such 15 council members were interviewed. This study followed by application of Kolmogorov–Smirnov test in order to assure the normality of average score distribution. This is followed by application of T test in order to evaluate the council function. Comparison between the view points of the households and council members demands application of Mean Whitney U and non-dependent T. This study suggests that there is not a significant variation in rural council performance from economic aspect. However, social rural council performance is more appropriate comparing with their economic status. With respect to cultural aspect, the significance level is less than average. Moreover, the degree of rural community participation is amounted to be little over than average.

Ali Shams-Aldini, Javad Etaat, Human Shahrivar,
Volume 2, Issue 5 (12-2013)

Rural tendency toward continual participation of rural settlers in social, economic and political activities is being considered as one of the most prominent factor in rural development .However, it is being argued that political participation of people namely rural settlers does not necessarily lead to high level of awareness and overall and comprehensive social and economic development of subsistence communities.Rather,it may provide the ground for demanding their economic and service share and subsequent struggles and internal disputes. In Mamasani region located in Fars province,criteria with regard to peoples participation is not based on an open society rather, political participation principle follows the tribal expectation. This study aims to analyze the political participation trend of the rural settlers taking into account their tribal identity, in provision of economic and social services in rural communities. As such, 90 rural households extracted out of 4 villages with population over 1000 as sample. This paper considered the level of rural participation in national election as well as the determination of relationship between tribal identities of the house of representative with level of provided services in their rural communities. This study suggests that people who took part in election voted for nominees who have high tribal identity. Moreover, provision of services and welfare in villages is highly associated with representative’s identity and his tribal affiliation.

Zinab Asadi, Eissa Pourramzan, Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)

Nowadays, most experts in rural development field agree that reaching to sustainable development is not impossible without all people’s Participation and undoubtedly, the process of development will be facilitated, with more speed and less expenditure. Meanwhile, the historical experience of our country emphasizes on utilizing top-down strategies for development, it shows its failure on the process of rural development. Therefore, based on this experience and increasing overall knowledge and scientific knowledge, it is necessary for the society to pay attention to rural development which is dominated by people’s Participation and this Participation should be the priority for plans and measures.
Spontaneous and endogenous development indicated that in all stages and in different circumstances, development is based on Participation of local people for mobilization of resources and institutionalizing local Participation with emphasis on empowerment and capacity building. People’s Participation causes them not to feel alienated with plans and new elements; this makes them to be engaged throughout the planning process and after that in implementation and maintenance of the plans; they feel that the plan and the product belong to them and they cooperate greatly to maintain it and make it dynamic. People’s Participation in local planning may lead to decentralization and it can reduce the limitations of top-down planning.
So, these plans and all the expenditures in these villages should result in development, if villagers wants and needs are recognized and they are engaged in villages' affairs; because, on one hand, villagers Participation leads to empowerment of institutions and social organizations in the village so that they facilitate development process, and on the other hand, it leads to usage of capabilities and talents of villages for national development, the sustainability of population and decrease of regional inequalities. Khoshke-bijar district is located in north-east part of Rasht County; in recent years, many construction plans and projects were prepared and implemented in these villages such as preparing and implementing guide plans, equipping and modernization of agricultural lands, gas delivery plans, purified water delivery system, and so on. According to this, the present study aims to answer this fundamental question that how much influence does people's Participation have on the development of villages in Khoshke-bijar district?
Regarding its objective, this is a practical study and a descriptive-analytical one according to its methodology. For studying and recognizing the status quo, descriptive method, and for statistical analyzing in the case of rural services and population, analytical method has been used. Therefore, theoretical and conceptual framework of the study and geographical and demographic features of the study were collected by documentary method and determining the ways that people engage in different areas had been done through field study. Statistical population includes villages of Khoshke-bijar district in Rasht County that have been selected in four categories: small villages, medium size villages, big villages and parts that are a combination of village and town. Study sample is determined 400 villagers, according to Morgan Standard Table that is distributed and completed by using random-quota sampling method in the studied area. Questionaries' validity is determined by experts' comments and those who have expertise in rural planning and its reliability is determined by Cronbach's Coefficient Alfa (0.81). For data analysis in this study some tests have been used including Wilcoxon Test, Spearman Correlation Test, and Kruskal Wallis Test.
Discussion and conclusion
Participation objective is generally defined as voluntarily participation of people in development plans in all stages- including goal setting, decision making, implementation, maintenance and evaluation. People's Participation can be recognized as a process through that poor and disadvantaged people can be organized and by this organizing they could try development efforts. If all villagers could be directed toward field creation and optimal organization, this filed and organization turn to be an instrument for expressing their wants, through that they could achieve their rational wants.
Villagers' Participation in Khoshe-bijar district will be on its maximum level, and can have impact on rural development, if all cited obstacles are removed. It is obvious that removing the existing economic problems in Khoshke-bijar district is not possible without focusing on social, cultural and political problems and when villages lack a desirable level of culture and social attitude, it will be impossible to expect them understand new methods of economic development and take the risk of them. Finally, it can be said that in Khoshke-bijar villages, despite of many different problems and obstacles in the way of Participation and using that for rural development, villagers' desire to engage in affairs and their presence in many development plans can be helpful and it clarifies the necessity of planning for this important matter.
The results show that the desire for intellectual, and physical Participation among villagers is in a desirable level. By increasing the economic power of the villagers in Khoshke-bijar district which is possible through their own Participation, we can expect that the level of Participation in plans and projects for rural development increase too. There is no doubt that Participation motivation among villagers depends on using cultural actions and giving awareness to them that are the top priorities. Because the level of Participation and cooperation among villages are at a high level in many villages of the developed countries in the world and they strongly believe in team work activities, the level of Participation is in a desirable level and villages are more developed too, due to widespread acculturation and internalization among rural people. It is obvious that when people of the studied area are aware of the advantages and effective results of cooperative works and they know more about the results of Participation for sustainable profits and interests, their motivation for Participation will increase.

Leila Ghobadi, Mehdi Moameri, ,
Volume 10, Issue 36 (8-2021)

Rangelands are lands covered mostly with indigenous vegetation such as grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs, which are managed as a natural ecosystem. They are one of the most fundamental natural ecosystems in the world, and they play an important role in protein production and the ecosystem balance. Rangelands are largely used as a feed source for livestock. However, they provide other secondary resources such as firewood, wild edibles, medicinal plants, and water.
Today, one of the most serious and recent difficulties facing development initiatives is the degradation of natural resources (rangeland ecosystems are included) and their excessive use. Reduced forage production, less plant cover, soil degradation and erosion, water loss and increased rate of runoff and flood, loss of biodiversity, decreasing small ruminant productivity, increased invasive plants, and reduction of ecotourism areas are all consequences of quantitative and qualitative rangeland degradation. In recent decades, confronting the causes of forest and rangeland degradation and attempting to restore these resources has become a fundamental and necessary step toward sustainable development. Given that the vast area of forests and rangelands, and the high labor requirement for conserving and restoring these resources, it appears that stakeholder participation is the most effective strategy to develop these resources. Namin county in Ardabil Province contains a large area of​​ rangeland, which is the most important source of income for rural communities in the region. In other words, livestock husbandry in rangelands is one of the main activities of the local people, who rely on rangeland for forage. However, in recent years, the region's rangelands have been damaged for various reasons resulting in a reduction rangelands area. As a result, it appears that the reasons of rangeland ecosystems degradation should be identified in order to support rangeland ecosystems and reduce their degradation. So, the main purpose of this research is to investigate the economic and social factors affecting the rangelands degradation in Namin County's rural areas.
The research was conducted in Namin County's rural areas (including - Saqsloo, Aghzamankandi and Tifiyeh). The county of Namin is located in mountainous areas with an average elevation of 1700 meters above sea-level.
The research method is descriptive using survey and analysis.  In the three villages of Saqsloo, Aghzamankandi, and Tifiyeh, the statistical community for this study was 1279 individuals, with 326 beneficiaries. A questionnaire was used as the research tool in this study, and 21 beneficiaries (households) were interviewed using stratified random sampling. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed based on expert opinions, and its reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient test.
A questionnaire was created based on three indicators: social factors affecting rangeland degradation with 13 questions (S1, S2, S3, … S13), economic factors with 10 questions (E1, E2, E3, … E10) and other effective factors with 10 questions (O1, O2, O3, … O10). Furthermore, each question was graded on a five-point Likert- scale. Based on accessibility, cost and the researchers’ capacity, the total number of the questionnaire in each village was selected according to about 5 to10 percent of the total number of the households (preferably heads of households). In the target villages, questionnaires were filled out through face-to-face visits, observation, and interviews.
The sample size for each village was then determined based on the number of households. As a result, in the village of Saqsloo, Aghzamankandi, and Tifiyeh 11, 4 and 6 questionnaires were completed, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS software Ver.22.
Discussion and Conclusion
The results revealed that economic factors such as insufficient annual income and social factors such as a lack of essential training and extension courses, limited participation of beneficiaries in rangeland project implementation, and a lack of proper management and sense of responsibility are the most effective factors in rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation was primarily influenced by the quantity of beneficiaries and the technique of exploitation. In addition, the number of livestock and living expenses, as well as the economic position of rangeland beneficiaries in the community are important determinants. According to the results, the level of knowledge and awareness, improving the situation, income and livelihood, the effectiveness of training courses, and the participation of stakeholders and local organizations all had an impact on rangeland degradation. Therefore, because the villagers are in need of rangelands to supply fodder for their livestock, it is possible to reduce rangeland degradation by assigning rangeland management plans and projects of improving rangelands to stakeholders by following the laws and implementing planned management. In general, Department of Natural Resources and Watershed Management of Ardabil Province can act to reduce rangeland degradation of Namin County's rural areas by devolution of the implementation of rangeland management, improvement, and development projects to beneficiaries, involving beneficiaries in planning and implementation of projects, providing loan facilities to them, holding training and promotion courses by experienced natural resources experts to increase ranchers’ knowledge.

Kobra Hassanpour, Yaser Mohammadi, Zeinab Asadi,
Volume 10, Issue 38 (3-2022)

 According to the United Nations, women make up 49% of the rural population and 65% of agricultural activities; The rate of this participation in the agricultural sector of Iran is 60%. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported in 2010 that with the increase in male migration, the role of women in agriculture has increased and women have found a key role in food production to support the family; About 50% of the world's food production is produced by women. Due to the prevalence of coronary heart disease and the increasing need of communities for healthy and accessible food, the importance of women's activities in the agricultural sector, whose first and most important role is to ensure food security of communities, has doubled. The rapid spread of the disease and the lack of an accurate timeline for how long the disease will last or when the virus can be controlled have raised many international concerns. The FAO (2020) report states that the full effects of coronary heart disease (Covid-19) on food security and food and agricultural systems are still becoming apparent, and that its prevalence could have significant negative effects on all those involved throughout the world. Have a food supply chain. Therefore, the epidemic caused by the Corona virus has had a significant impact on agriculture, and most of this impact has been on the vulnerable population of farmers. In addition to the decisive role in food production, rural women with sufficient knowledge and experience in various agricultural activities. They have also played a role in activities such as food processing, household chores, and trade in the handicraft market, and are among the most important pillars of maintaining economic prosperity and achieving a sustainable rural community. Women in all sectors, including agriculture, like other economic sectors of society, follow in the footsteps of men, to maintain the dynamic life of social structures and to promote the effective functions of production-service processes, and to provide a significant share of the labor force. Self-allocate. However, since the cultural values ​​that govern the village consider all women's activities as a natural thing and part of their daily duties, as a result, despite all their efforts, their activities in the agricultural sector Is ignored. However, without the active participation of women, the rural economy and its households will undoubtedly face new challenges if they do not face closure, and achieving sustainable development goals will not be possible without their participation.

Research Methods
The present study is considered as an applied research according to the research objectives and results. According to the method of data collection and implementation method, the research is a descriptive correlation with the survey strategy. In order to express the reasons for changes in social phenomena, in terms of numerical analysis of data, little research has been done. The statistical population in this study is women farmers in Delfan city. The sample size was calculated using Cochran's formula of 200 samples and stratified sampling. Based on this, first 5 villages were randomly selected from 10 villages of the statistical population, then 19 villages were randomly selected from the selected villages to fill in the questionnaire. The statistical sample size of this study includes 200 women farmers. In order to collect information about the opinions of women farmers about the factors affecting agricultural activities in this study, two methods of documentary study (library) and survey have been used. To collect information by referring to books, documents and scientific articles, valid statistics of organizations and institutions related to the library method. According to the main objectives and questions of the research, the required information has been collected using a questionnaire.

Discussion and conclusion
 From the first stages of agriculture, women have been very active in agriculture, especially in rural areas of Iran, which is the predominant form of family exploitation. According to the results obtained in the study population, the majority of exploiters (81%) are in the same way. The activities of women in the agricultural sector of Delfan city are very diverse, including these activities such as plant cultivation, harvesting, weeding, harvesting, pruning trees, threshing and cleaning And measuring the crop as well as giving forage and animal care, on the other hand, according to the custom and culture of rural society, women do not appear outside the farm and more to produce products and products from agriculture and They take care of domestic animals. The participation of women in developing countries is higher than other countries due to the lack of mechanized farms and lack of access to some agricultural equipment. However, in some areas the working time for women is less than the working time for men. Given the above and the major role of women farmers in agricultural and livestock production, it is necessary to pay sufficient attention to their use and access to development resources and to identify the main and effective factors in this regard and to address the problem and knots. And provide the necessary support to women farmers to be more active in the agricultural sector, because with more and more women in the agricultural sector, in addition to creating food security, this will also lead to economic growth and also improve livelihoods. Villagers and farmers will also be.

Ebrahim Sadeghi, Mohammad Hassanzadeh Nafooti, Aliakbar Jamali, Asghar Salehi,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (5-2022)

Many experts and practitioners stated that sustainable development is more probable through social capital or participation and social trust. By involving local people in the watershed management process, users' technical and analytical skills are improved. In evaluating watershed management projects, so far, mainly technical goals to reduce nature reactions have been considered by designers and planners; however, the human factor in the design, evaluation and achievement of socio-economic goals of the project has received less attention. Therefore, it will be necessary to pay more attention in this regard. In Qaleh Shahrerokh Basin, various watershed management projects have been implemented that have different effects on environmental factors, and consequently, socio-economic conditions in the region. According to the researchers, the study of the factors affecting the participation and also the internal effect of each factor on each other is one of the tasks that should be done before, during and after the implementation of such projects. The present study aims to identify barriers affecting the participation of the villagers using multiple correlation and path analysis to help local managers to be more successful in planning and implementing future watershed management projects with maximum participation.

The present study is a non-experimental and descriptive-analytical study. The statistical population of this study consists of all heads of households in Qaleh Shahrokh village of Chadegan city. According to the statistical population, the sample size was obtained using the Cochran's formula with a 5% error rate, which was considered 250 for greater accuracy. The data collection tool in this study was a questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by professors and experts of Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, a pre-test was performed, in which the calculated Cronbach's alpha value was obtained for the main scales of the questionnaire. SPSS and AMOS software were used to analyze the collected data by multiple correlation and path analysis.

Discussion and conclusion
The research findings showed that the level of participation of respondents in watershed management projects is low. The continuation of this situation can make difficulties for the implementation and maintenance of future watershed management projects in the region, and cost a lot of money imposed on the government to maintain and develop plans. Regarding the level of familiarity of villagers with watershed management plans, the results showed that in general the level of familiarity and knowledge of respondents about different dimensions of watershed management plans was low and this factor is one of the important reasons for the low level of rural participation in watershed management projects. This problem indicates the lack of extension and educational activities of watershed management project implementers before the implementation of the projects. These results show that unless the villagers have a good level of awareness about plans and projects and have a negative mindset about job creation and the positive impact of watershed management projects, they will be indifferent such plans. The results of multiple correlation and path analysis showed that cultural factors play a key role in the non-participation of villagers in watershed management projects and other factors do not directly affect participation. This result indicates that the knowledge and awareness of the residents of the region about the goals and results of watershed management projects should be increased in order to lead to gaining trust and maximum participation in the implementation, maintenance and maintenance of such projects.


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