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Maryam Hadizadeh Bazaz, Hamid Shayan, Khadijeh Bouzarjomehry, Mohsen Noghani Dokht Bahmani,
Volume 2, Issue 6 (3-2014)

Khorasan Razavi Province is among provinces that has established several rural production corporations in recent decades. One of their main tasks of these corporations is to eliminate traditional filed structures and solving problems using new and modern agricultural tools. This paper studies the activities of RPC in Khorasan Razavi Province to achieve this goal. In this regard, performance of RPC in the covered villages of 24 counties has been studied based on 11 of infrastructural services and using variables TOPSIS technique and variable have been compared and ranked. Studies on RPC in Khorasan Razavi Province shows performance level of corporations in giving services to their members is not suitable. Among different counties, Nayshaboor, Torbat-Heydariyeh and Torbat-Jam counties have best performances and Kashmar, Kalat and Zaveh counties have worst performances in giving service to coverall villages. In addition, in this research effective factors on improvement of corporation performances(based on views of experts and corporation managers) in the form of 7 indexes’, have been studied using anthropic method. Based on expert views, state financed supports are the most important functions in exacting infrastructural activities. After that, management aspects, motivation and cooperation of members are effectives.

Jamshid Einali, Behroz Mohammadi Yeganeh, Mohammad Tayeb Khaledi Nia,
Volume 4, Issue 14 (2-2016)

In our country, inappropriate physical housing in villages is the result of "bad housing" that can be inferred as one of the most important challenges in rural development. This phenomenon is the result of inappropriate resilient construction, worn-out houses, pollutions because of coexistence of animals and human, sharing the living space with working place; and these issues are caused by inappropriate economic, social and cultural characteristics that govern the rural society of the country and also they are derived from lack of attention to technical obligations, worn-out houses, lack of effective supervision, inadequate infrastructural and economic provision. Therefore, to decrease the bad housing condition in rural districts of the country, some efforts have been started through improvement and renovation of worn-out texture, retrofitting of rural buildings, provision of technical and quality regulations and obligation and issuing ownership documents together with codification of second phase of development plan that provide a good condition for socioeconomic changes in rural districts. These changes have impacts on meeting the needs of the residents and their quality of life, their livelihood changes, and rural housing functions through improvement of physical environment of the rural district. So, this study tries to answer the following questions:
"Dose rural housing improvement lead to changes in housing components and economic functions of the houses in the studied rural district by using house retrofit loans"? And "Do these changes have a meaningful difference among villages of this rural district?”
This is a practical study that uses descriptive-analytical methods to determine the issue and its results according to performed field studies (questionnaire, observation and interview). Shamshir rural district is located in Paveh County in the west of Kermanshah province and all the eight villages of this rural district are evaluated in this study. According to general population and housing census (1390) the total number of households in this rural district is 2593 households. 287 households are selected as sample population by using Cochran Formula and questionnaires were distributed randomly. For data analysis different statistical method have been used such as One Sample T-Test (to compare numerical mean), Wilcoxon Test (before and after rural housing improvement) and Kruskal Wallis Test (measuring current differences in the rank of diversification to economic activities in sample villages) and Spearman Correlation Coefficient Test.
Discussion and Conclusion
The results showed that most of new housings, which were constructed by the incentives of government including its credits and supervision, have a substructure of 100 square meters. To overcome the steep slope that governs the village site and to decrease the humidity, new housings are constructed according to a two-storey building design in which the ground flood is inhospitable. Studying the impacts of rural housing improvement and renovation shows widespread differences between two periods which were before and after this process. So, these changes can be mostly considered in housing building plans and maps and extensive modelling of urban housing designs, elimination of some basic elements of old housings and also high availability of facilities and infrastructure services; the basic reasons of these changes include logging bans in forests and pastures, discontinuing traditional way of living based on livestock farming and using forests, improvement of transportation roads and turning them to highways, proximity to Paveh county, and prevalence of unofficial economy and contraband trade. According to respondents' point of view, the results show that all of the studied components have a meaningful difference in periods before and after physical improvement. The most meaningful differences are in rendering services like mechanical service, carwash service, tire mounting and balancing service (-15.002), and employment in non-agricultural activities among men (-14.883) respectively, and the least meaningful differences are reported in such components like households' needs (bread, vegetables, fruit and dairy) (-6.398) and performing economic activities inside the home by women such as handicrafts and carpet weaving (-7.228). Moreover, correlation analysis shows that there is a meaningful relation between rural housing improvement components and components of nonagricultural activities among men (0.812), designing a special place for livestock (-0.603), assigning a part of the house to rendering automobile services (mechanical, carwash, tire mounting and balancing services) (0.600) and performing economic activities inside the home by women (0.324) at a level of 99 percent. In conclusion, the result of classification of changes in economic functions of rural housings in Shamshir rural district does not show a meaningful difference among the studied villages. Therefore, according to the respondents' point of view, the most average ranks in performing the studied economic activities are as follow: non-agriculture employment among men in Shamshir village; assigning a part of the house to services in Dorisan village; performingactivities related to gardening and assigning a place for production and selling the forest's products in Bandare village; and in designing a place for livestock and performing economic activities in home by women in Tazdeh, Bandare and Dorisan villages.

Hojat Allah Sadeghi, Skandar Seidaiy, Shadi Ghobadi, Maryam Salehi Kakhki,
Volume 5, Issue 16 (8-2016)

One of the necessary principles of rural development is its management. A special approach of development is needed to be planned for every particular area. On the other hand, it is not useful to apply an integrated approach of development by new managing systems. At this point we can clearly understand the important role of institutions and organizations related to the structuralfunctional development of villages. These institutions and organizations have critical roles in different economic, social, cultural, and eco-environmental aspects of a society. Those tasks defined for some of these institutions and organizations are a combination of different aspects or a single task oriented which can affect rural planning and its development. Management aspects of institutions and organizations related to rural development are among the most important factors here. Although, compared to previous years, considerable changes have occurred in rural management systems but they couldn’t cause rural sustainability. In this regard, structuralfunctioning performance of organizations and institutions related to the current status of villages was highly decisive. So, regarding rural position with the great impact of its development on local national progress, it seems necessary to investigate the performance of the institutions and organizations in different economic, social, cultural, eco-environmental, and structural aspects of villages. This research aims at evaluating the performance of institutions and organizations related to rural sustainability to find ways to the regional development of Dehdez district in the County of Izeh.
This is an applied research conducted by descriptive-analytical approach. Required data was collected through document-library and field studies. Data required for field studies were collected through questionnaires. Among all the residential villages of the area which are over 101, a number of 30 villages (25% of all villages) have been randomly selected as questioning samples. Based on Cochran formula 315 households were selected as statistical samples. Sample population has been distributed among 30 villages using the ratio method proportional to population. Finally, data have been collected and analyzed in SPSS and AMOS software. One- sample t test and correlation analysis methods were used in inferential statistics.
Discussion and conclusion
Regional and integrated developments are the consequences of good programming of acceptable performances of rural institutions and organizations. People believe that, compared to the past 30 years, these institutions and organizations have been acted successfully in terms of economic, social, structural, and eco-environmental aspects. Additionally, they have caused positive changes in programming and fighting against poverty. The most remarkable thing in terms of changes happened is the matter of time requirements and factors affecting this field of study. In other words, in every period of time the existing factors and facilities have influenced on the performance of related organizations and institutions. Another important point is that in spite of spatial inequalities in the provision of services and facilities to the rural areas, relative satisfaction with the performance of such institution and organizations is still visible.
Although the performance of these organizations has been acceptable in four different aspects, their weaknesses cannot be ignored. In fact, if these organizations could make changes in rural development, they couldn’t cause rural sustainability and unsustainability is still continuing there. It can be said that even after the establishment and extra interfering of institutions in rural management, not only have not these human settlements become sustainable, but also several economic, social, and eco-environmental changes have been imposed on them.
Therefore, in spite of the fact that this research is intending to show the effectiveness of rural institutions on the improvement of rural position, it should be mentioned that it is a moderate impact appropriate to the time requirements which is mostly concentrated on services with no effective impact on rural sustainability. So, integrated objectives and systemic perspectives should be taken by managers and programmers and decision making should be done within the same framework. According to the results from the study, in line with the improvement of organizational and institutional performances in the studied area and other generalized regions, a few suggestions are presented:
1. Organizational and institutional emphasis on an integrated systematic rural development and sustainability by paying more attention to all the variables mentioned in the study.
2. More emphasis of related authorities and institutions on economic development of rural areas considering results from the study that shows some deficiencies in terms of income, employment, variety of activities, and ….
3. According to the better functions of rural institutions and organizations in social dimension of villages and the inseparable connection of economic and social dimensions, the existing capacity of social variables should be used for the improvement and promotion of economic sector.
4. Based on the results from the study it can be implied that the lack of suitable institutional interaction in different dimensions of rural development is one of the deficiencies and weaknesses in terms of rural sustainability. On the other hand, each institution and organization is trying for its own goals and it cannot lead to the comprehensive and sustainable rural development. So, it is suggested to increase this type of interactions and try to establish a new organization responsible for rural development.

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