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Showing 5 results for Spatial Analysis

Farhad Azizpuor, Hassan Afrakhteh, Maryam Shamaniyan,
Volume 3, Issue 7 (6-2014)

Quality of life is multifaceted and relative concept. It is being affected by spatial and temporal variation as well as social – individual values. This bears different meaning for different groups. This study tries to measure quality of life based on subjective indices. It further identifies and analyses the major spatial factors responsible for life quality of the rural people. This study is based on descriptive-analytical approach. The study area is Ghorogh district located in Gorgan Province. The statistical societies are corresponding to rural settlers of ٥ villages. Sample size based on Cochran formula turned out to be ٣٤٠ rural households using stratified sampling technique. Data gathering demand application of documentary and more specifically questionnaire. Analysis of data requires ANOVA technique. This study suggests that the rural quality of life with regard environmental and physical aspect from rural settlers’ standpoint is suitable. The quality of life is well associated with distance from major roads, distance from Gorgan as well as ethnic diversity.

Hasanali Faraji Sabokbar, Nader Molaee, Bahram Hajari,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

The employment problem and the manpower in general, is a matter of great importance in economic issues. In the economy of Iran, employment is one of the main concerns of the economic policy makers. The analysis of the employment situations and its structure all over the country requires at thorough knowledge of the capacities and potential power of the regions and its combination in the areas, for an equal and balanced planning and employment in every region and areas. In order to plan and achieve the rural economic development, population is most important and even the main factor to consider, because the quantitative and qualitative changes in population has significant effects on this procedure and furthermore one of the most important issues about the population which should be considered is the employment for the provision of manpower employment can be so effective towards achievement of every countries’ development, thus the employment issue is a key and strategic issue in every economic society. Employment is the factor that gets all the mental and physical abilities of man to be applied that result in relaxation and obedience between people due to the disappearance of unemployment, preventing the migration, the use and development of exceptional talents and rise in the national gross income. The villages of the country having a lot of active force which can play an important role in the economic development, studying the spatial distribution of employment in the rural regions and planning based on that can be a way of economic development of the villages and results in the economic prosperity of the country. Since the economic activities (agriculture, industry, services) in general, and particularly the resources and facilities, have an undesirable concentration from the spatial distribution aspect, in Iran, every region requires especial programs according to its characteristics, in this regard we should identify the situation of different regions based on the suitable scientific methods, before any actions. Therefore, this paper is developed to evaluate the employment status of the major departments and groups of activity and their spatial distribution in the country. To this aim, basic parts which were exporting their workforce are identified divided into counties, using the locative quotient (LQ) index.
Research method:
The purpose of this study was to understand the conditions of the regions and the major groups of economic activity (agriculture, industry and services) in the rural parts of the country. The statistical sample for this study includes 394 counties which statistics were gathered during the 2011 general census of people and housing. Using the locative quotient (LQ), the basic areas or the exporters of the working force were identified in the country and the state, and the GIS software has been used to prepare the map of major activity groups.
Discussion and conclusion:
The results show that in agriculture, 55% of the counties of the country (215 counties) belong to the basic and the workforce exporting regions that mainly are in the West, North West and South East of the country. Since the suitable climate and soil in these regions, we can see most employment in the agricultural part in a way that they can send agricultural workforce to other regions. These regions have also an important role in the national economic development and by guiding the investments towards their agricultural part; we can help it to be more efficient in the economy of the country. In the industrial part, 26% of the counties of the country (103counties) are more than one which can be counted as basic and workforce exporting regions and are mainly is located in the states of Tehran, Mazandaran, Qom, Qazvin and the central and south parts of the country. These states have the potential to send industrial workforce to other regions, and because of the proximity to the capital, the existence of agricultural transformative industries and in some regions possession of the mines, these states have the most industrial employment in the country. These areas have a great part in the economy of the country and by financing this part and creation of employment opportunities and industrialization of the villages, their industry will prosper, that results in an industrial growth in the national economy. In the services part, 49 percent of the counties of the country (195 counties) have a locative quotient greater than one and are categorized as workforce exporter regions that are mainly located in the central, east north, west north and the south parts of the country. The reasons for the tendency of these areas of service activities include proximity to the borders and unsuitable natural conditions in some regions.

Saeid Maleki, Seyyed Reza Hosseini Kahnoj, Elham Vesi, Pirooz Rahmani Lir,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)

Housing has been one of the most essential needs of human life for a long time and it is one of the most important symbols of civilization and culture. Providing a shelter which is safe and secure is everyone’s ambition and to reach to this aim, human beings have used many different methods and technologies to improve the quality and quantity of housing. Through time passage and change of structure and function and also through meeting new requirements, if physical texture which is a symbol of biological and cultural way of living could not accommodate with time and place conditions of that society, this problem causes lack of development and as a result, leads to physical chaos. These spatial developments in rural environment, problems and the resulted failures in settlement methods and following that effects of urban environments on spatial-physical texture of villages have caused many changes. Therefore, to reach to the optimal condition in spatial dimension, codification of a comprehensive plan in housing sector requires recognition and analysis in vast dimensions and awareness of quantity status of housing indicators in regional planning process. So, reaching to an optimal condition in housing, as a developmental indicator is essential. This study aims to study rural housing indicators throughout the country in different dimensions (infrastructural and facilities dimension, structural strength and health facilities) and tries to determine their spatial levels; after recognizing the differences between regions, this study provide solutions for improvement of effective factors to blur spatial inequalities.
This study is a theoretical-practical study and uses a descriptive-analytical method. For data collection, documentary method has been used.
Data includes the results of general census of population and housing in 1390 according to each province separately. 41 variables are studied in this study and they are classified according to four general indicators. Following that, for giving weight to criteria, 20 experts commented and statistical analysis has been done by using factor analysis model and Fuzzy TOPSIS model. 41 variables are classified according to four main indicators including infrastructure and facilities, structural strength, facilities and heath care facilities).
Discussion and Conclusion
In the process of determining spatial level, recognizing and analyzing the facilities, obstacles, it is important to determine the development level of the regions regarding the level of satiation and deprivation. Basically, to reach development, determining spatial level is considered as a fundamental change and its realization is related to coordination between different dimensions. Because the studied issue is very important, this study considers the related indicators using Fuzzy TOPSIS model and factor analysis method; according to the studies and calculations it is proven that rural residents in Iran’s provinces have a type of inequality. In other words, spatial distribution is not equal in all residents; because in rural regions of the following provinces are at the highest level of satiation: Mazandaran (0.460), Isfahan (0.464), Alborz (0.455) and Tehran (0.449); rural regions of the following provinces are at lower level of satiation regarding the rural housing indicators: Sistan and Baluchestan (0.265), South Khorasan (0.267), Hormozgan (0.267) and Kerman (0.270). Therefore, codification of a comprehensive plan for housing, especially rural housing, requires complete recognition and deep analysis in vast dimensions about housing and factors that affect it. It should be said that although these indicators are key elements in determining the quality and quantity of housing and each indicator has a special position in housing planning system, but existence of each indicator is not the necessary condition for improving the quantity level of housing. So in discussing about housing quality, sufficient conditions require that all indicators be together. Generally, the status of housing indicators in some provinces create various social and cultural problems in micro and macro level of the society, so precaution and support are the best strategies in this matter. So, for directing future development in these villages toward a sustainable development and putting the existing problems away, it is necessary to implement effective and practical planning to improve housing status in these residents; and less developed regions should be considered more than more developed ones.

Fatemeh Rostami, Ehsan Jabbari, Shahbakhti Rostami,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (2-2021)

According to the theoretical frameworks in the spatial analysis, every "structure" in space has a specific "function". To study phenomena and to identify the relationships between them, these two concepts are of particular importance, especially in the "structural-functional dynamism" approach. The basic premise of this approach is based on the existence of a link between the structure and function of phenomena, the output of which represents the capabilities of that system. If a watershed can be considered as a spatial structure, then the existing wells in the area would represent one of its functions in form of groundwater exploitation.
During the last three decades, the rapid increase in the population of urban centers adjacent to the Mahidasht watershed along with the change of cultivation pattern has led to the uncontrolled expansion of irrigation cultivation pattern, which in turn has led to excessive use of groundwater. For this reason, in the last four decades, the number of wells drilled in the study area has increased 23 times compared to the four decades before, from about 70 wells to more than 1,593 wells. Excessive exploitation of groundwater resources has led to an increase in the depth of wells and this, in turn, has led to lowering the groundwater level in the study area. Nowadays, this process has created some kind of zones that can be called critical zones in terms of increasing the depth of wells and water abstraction. In the present study, in order to determine and draw the map of such zones, the two main bases of spatial analysis, namely "position" and "distance" were applied, and common techniques and tools of GIS were used to analyze data related to wells in the study area.
Study area: Mahidasht watershed with an area of 1506.64 square kilometers and a perimeter of 239.9 kilometers is located in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. The area contains 132 springs, 14 Qanats (aqueducts) and 1593 wells.  
Data: The data applied in the present study include seven layers namely; Digital Elevation Model (DEM), wells, rivers, country divisions, catchment divisions, urban and rural settlements. They were obtained from the US Geological Survey (USGS), Kermanshah Regional Water Company and the Governor Office of Kermanshah, respectively. For spatial analysis based on the location and distance of wells, the following data were applied: year of drilling, depth, type of consumption, annual discharge rate, annual performance, discharge of each well (litters per second), location of settlements in the study area and their attributes. In terms of techniques, the following ones were applied: point in polygon, spatial join, buffering and spatial interpolation.

Techniques: In the present study, a table containing the coordinative and descriptive features of 1593 wells drilled in the Mahidasht watershed was converted into a point layer in ArcGIS. This layer, in addition to showing the distribution of wells in the region, was the basis for all other following analysis in this study. Mosaic, Extract, Hydrology, Thiessen Polygon and Natural Neighbor techniques and tools have also been applied to show and draw the final map of critical zones.
Discussion and results
The results of the present study indicated that in a chain process the following events have occurred in the study area:
  1. Rapid increase in the population of the region during the 1980s and 1990s led to the increasing use of various resources, including groundwater resources,
  2. The number of wells in the study area increased with unusual speed,
  3. Increasing the number of wells led to increasing the depth of wells over time, especially during the 2000s.
  4. Increasing the average depth of wells in Mahidasht watershed led to over-depletion of groundwater aquifers and lowering its level.
  5. All of the above have led to the creation of zones known as critical groundwater abstraction zones. The result of the present study is the calculating, determining and mapping these zones based on common techniques in spatial analysis. These critical zones are located in the lands of 61 villages and cover an area of 20,000 hectares.
However; despite the increase in the number of wells, the population of villages in the region has decreased. It means that the increase occurred in income due to the change of cultivation pattern from rain-fed to irrigated has not been invested in the villages of Mahidasht but has been transferred outside the region. Therefore, it can spatially be concluded that increasing the number of wells and high consumption of groundwater not only did not cause economic growth and prosperity in the villages of the region, but also has disturbed the ecological balance of the area. The last point is that; if no developmental measures are considered to improve and repair the conditions governing the critical zones in the study area, according to the structural-functional dynamism approach, it should be expected that change in a part of the spatial system will alter and even destroy the functions, structures and living space of the area. Thus, it can be concluded that, this problem can take the region away from the desired (and even minimum) conditions for a rational life and cause the destruction of other components of the system.

Masoumeh Noroozinezhad, Majid Yasuri, Ruhollah Oji,
Volume 11, Issue 42 (1-2023)

The declining trend of the rural economy, the spread of poverty, and unemployment show that, in practice, the vital development goals in rural areas have failed. The sustainability of the rural economy is a vital corridor to achieving national economic sustainability. Economic sustainability in rural areas means strengthening the foundations of the rural economy to economic security in terms of access to sustainable livelihoods, economic stability, beneficial employment, reliable financial resources and environmentally friendly technology using human resources. Today, it is necessary to pay attention to economic sustainability, considering the challenges facing developing countries. In the current situation, attention to economic sustainability becomes more necessary, given the challenges and bottlenecks that settlements face.
On the other hand, discovering, understanding, and recognizing spatial patterns leads to a better understanding of phenomena and their relationships, actions, and interactions at the space level. The analysis of the elements of geographical space facilitates the mutual understanding of the phenomena and helps to simplify and create order in a vague and complex reality. Based on objective facts, rural settlements in Langaroud County need better economic stability. This issue is evident in cases such as high unemployment, poverty, low agricultural production, etc. Accordingly, the sustainable development of the rural economy is considered a goal to solve the problems and issues of rural areas in the study area. Therefore, this study seeks to answer two questions: First, what spatial pattern does the economic sustainability of rural settlements in Langroud County follow? And second, what is the relationship between the geographical location of rural areas and their level of economic stability?

In terms of purpose, research is part of applied-developmental research. It is also descriptive-analytical in terms of analysis method. Research information was collected through field study and the use of the village questionnaire, and library-documentary studies. SPSS, GIS and Excel software have also been used to analyze the data. The study's statistical population is the Rural managers of more than 20 households in the city of Langroud, with 110 Rural managers in 7 villages, which has been done in total.

Discussion and conclusion
According to the research findings, in connection with the first purpose of the research (identifying the spatial pattern of economic sustainability of rural settlements in the study city), it was found that the spatial pattern of economic sustainability and its components (justice, stability, welfare), According to the results obtained from the general statistics of G, the statistics of general Moran and also the statistics of G, is random and one of the most important reasons is the randomness of the spatial pattern of the villages of the city, while in the research (2016) ), The spatial model of economic stability has been clustered; In his research, the spatial pattern of the villages was scattered, but the studied features formed a cluster, but in the present study, the spatial pattern of the villages was random, and the studied features were also random. The giver is that the studied villages have not been affected as much as possible by the surrounding villages. Concerning the second goal, namely the difference in geographical location and the level of economic stability of villages, studies have shown that sustainable villages are located in the plains of the city and as the natural and elevation position of villages goes to the foothills, Their economic stability is also reduced due to the recreational conditions of the mountain villages and the lack of easy access to the city, their dispersion, and the low population of these areas. Therefore, the research hypothesis related to the second question is confirmed that there is a difference between the natural and geographical location of villages and their level of economic stability. These results are consistent with the results of the research of Ghadiri Masoom et al. (2010), who concluded that the villages with the highest level of economic stability are located in the plains, like the current study that economically sustainable villages. There are villages located in the plains with large populations that are more extensive, have a natural location and good communication, and the level of job diversity is relatively higher in them.
According to the obtained results, it can be said that, in general, economic stability in the villages of Langroud county is at a weak level. The natural and communication situation of the villages is one of the most important factors that affect their level of economic stability; As the natural position of the villages moves towards the foothills, the level of economic stability decreases compared to other villages located in the plains. The results indicate that among the villages of Langroud county, the distribution of coefficients of economic stability components has been considerable. In other words, in each of the components of economic stability, several specific villages have the highest level of stability. Furthermore, economic stability in components has not occurred between common villages except in very few cases. In this regard, it can be acknowledged that despite some criteria as good economic stability. Other criteria, such as income level, job opportunities, and investments, are low. There were villages that, for example. The level of economic justice is high, and the level of economic stability is low. Therefore, the economic stability of villages has three components and various indicators that achieving the most desirable state requires the alignment and integration of all components and criteria of economic sustainability. Therefore, with a one-dimensional view of this process, we can not expect the desired results. However, it requires a comprehensive view and attention to all economic sustainability components in Langroud county's villages.


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