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Showing 4 results for Sustainable Rural

Ali Ghasemi, Varaz Moradi Masihi,
Volume 3, Issue 8 (8-2014)

Rural tourism and tourism economy are being considered as one of the major economic development indicators. Moreover, most of the planners and policy makers believe that tourism industry is the major element of sustainable development. As such, rural tourism through appropriate planning and identification of advantages and limitations could perform effective role regarding rural development as well as national development. The major objective of this study is to identify potentials and capabilities regarding sustainable tourism Alltapeh village located in Behshar in Mazandarn province. This village encompasses Abasabad tourism area which is among one of the recorded safaveeye’s tourism attractions. This study aims to explain the role of tourism regarding economic – social sustainable development in the study area. Research method is based on analytical – descriptive. Data gathering demands application of field work and documentation. Data analysis is based on SWOT matrix emphasizing weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities as well as proposing suggested strategies in order to achieve sustainable rural tourism. Statistical society composed of 1900 rural settlers located in the study area as well as tourists (500000 per year). Sample size was determined to be 218 which constitute of 78 of local community and 140 tourists. This study suggests that rural ecological vulnerability taking into account Abasabad tourist area is relatively high. This paper further believes that rural tourism requires more attention regarding tackling threats and limitations and relative comparative advantages as far as an appropriate policy making is concerned. It further concludes that tourism planning could lead to local economic variations and thriving organized economic activities and more importantly sustainable rural tourism.

Abdolreza Rokneddin Eftekhari, Samira Mahmoodi, Gholamreza Ghaffari, Mahdi Pourtaheri,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Social capital is being considered as way to achieve sustainable rural development as far asthe development experts are concerned. It is argued that social capital make the achievement of sustainable development possible taking into consideration provided opportunities and major societies constants at different levels including micro and macro level. In other word, social capital not only affects development process but also it is affected by as well. It is argued that social capital as a very important theoretical tool is capable of investigating the role of social variables regarding sustainable rural development. Lack of sufficient attention to rural settlers as social capital is a major challenge as far as sustainable rural development is concerned. This in turn could facilitate planning trend regarding rural sustainability through participation of rural settlers. Based on the relevant studies attention to social capital could enhance the achievement of sustainable rural development. Moreover, the relationship between social capital and level of rural development could well be justified by space economy and spatial dimension. Explanation of the phenomena and the spatial organization are affected by interaction of space and activities. Spatial dimension could exemplify itself in social processes and relationships. In effect, function of space is affected by space, time and social and economic mechanisms. As such this study aims to find out the relationship between social capital and rural development. It further tries to come up with social capital pattern.
Research method:
This study deals with analytical-descriptive research method based on both qualitative andquantitative methods. Sampling technique was random stratified sample. Based on physical location, distance, and number of households, six villages were selected from each class. Altogether, 18 villages were selected in the study area. Statistical society is composed of two groups that are local rural settlers (host community) and local authorities. Based on KMO test, social capital viability turned out to be 0:71. Moreover, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients used for evaluation of social capital in corresponding villages turned out to be 0.89. Social capital measures were selected through application of critical analysis over previous studies. In second phase, primary yardsticks and measures were screened in order to identify the prime social capital yardsticks with regard to sustainable development. Topsis technique was used for determination of social capital regarding level of development in sample villages.
Discussion and concluding:
Nowadays social capital is being considered as the most important development capital. As such, social capital with its spatial dimension is being known as a comprehensive strategy for achievement of social sustainability within sustainable development approach. It is because that the major objective of sustainable rural development based on social capital approach is promoting quality of life of local people, empowerment, capability formation, increase participation level as well as self-reliance, expanding rural communication network both in and outside of the villages and institutional development. This study suggests that there exist a relationship between social capital and level of rural development in the study area. It means that 63.5 percent of variation regarding level of development of the villages is explained by social capital. The magnitude of I index for determination of the corresponding spatial pattern based on social capital turned out to be 0.41. This figure compared with E (I) which is 0.03165 indicates that spatial pattern correspond with social capital of the studied villages incline toward multi pattern (concentrated and clustered). The highlight of this paper is first the endogenous nature of social capital and second confirmation of the past studies in this regard. Spatial pattern associated with social capital indicates that villages located in the center and in the proximity of large cities including Mashhad, Nishabur possess lower level of social capital. Heading toward the boundary of the province, the rate of rural social capital will increase.

Zahra Sharifinia,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (4-2021)

A review of studies in developing countries shows that economic programs in developing countries to achieve sustainable livelihoods and economic issues have failed to reduce poverty and a sustainable economy in rural areas. Therefore, today, one of the biggest challenges of planning rural communities and undermining the poverty in developing countries is providing livelihood. A approach that has emerged in the last decade is the sustainable livelihood approach, first proposed by Chambers in the 1980s; and recognized by the World Development and Environment Commission. Among development theories, thus, attention to sustainable livelihood approach, for empowerment and capacity building in rural areas in order to change the pattern of life has become a desirable method, and it is one of the important tools to achieve sustainable development.  Therefore, this approach emphasizes comprehensive and integrated framework about poverty reduction and rural development. Therefore, the present study seeks to answer this fundamental question; What are the most important factors affecting the livelihood sustainability of villagers in the study area?
This research is descriptive-analytical according to the purpose. In the descriptive part, to analyze the factors affecting the sustainability of villagers' livelihoods, documents and statistical methods have been used.  The statistical population of the study is more than 20 household villages in the mentioned rural area of Sari County, which includes 30 villages. The sample size was calculated according to Cochran's formula about 377 and was randomly distributed among the villagers.
The validity of the questionnaire was obtained from face validity method (opinion of professors and experts after several stages of correction and revision). To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, a pre-test (with 30 questionnaires) was performed and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.698, which indicates the validity of the questionnaire. To analyze the data, descriptive statistical methods such as central tendency indexes (frequency and percentage), and inferential (factor analytical) indicators have been used.
Discussion and conclusion
Poverty is one of the most important challenges for all society, especially rural communities. Thus, various approaches have been proposed to reduce and eradicate poverty. One of these popular ones is the sustainable livelihood approach, which was introduced in the 1980s. Since this is based on the theoretical approach of development and consists of various indicators, achieving sustainable livelihood is not possible without considering all the influential aspects of livelihood. Therefore, in order to recognize the effective indicators in sustainable rural livelihood, the process of policy-making, planning and rural management should consider all indicators holistically and interconnected. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable livelihoods of villagers in the mentioned rural area of Sari County.  The attitudes of local people were surveyed in 30 villages of this district, and factor analysis was used to answer the questions raised in the research. Therefore, KMO value for factors affecting livelihood stability was 0.924 and Bartlett value was 9764.279, which was significant at 99% confidence level. Findings showed that 15 factors were identified and a total of 53.908% of the total variance explained the variables. So that the first factor, i.e. income and job creation with a specific amount (15.35), explained more than 15.50% of the total variance and the fifteenth factor i.e., cultural core with a specific amount of 1.384 and the amount of variance 53.908 is the last factor. In a general, it can be said that all the factors explain 53.908% of the total variance of the variables, and 47.002% of the remaining variance is related to other factors that have not been predicted.
The results of the analysis show that the impact of the index is different from the perspective of local people, which should be considered. The first factor, namely employment and income, which has an important and vital role in the sustainability of rural livelihood, is one of their basic needs, should be given special attention. It measures to optimize agriculture and activities related to local and regional capabilities.  Therefore, initiatives can be proposed to strengthen sustainable rural livelihoods in the study area. First, according to the economic needs of people living and active in rural areas via diversification of activities and income generation means, and moreover through this approach create a variety of job opportunities and creating wealth and improving the living standards of the villagers, especially those whose predominant livelihood is agriculture. Second, paying attention to the indicators that were considered the first priority by the local people, as well as to prioritize other indicators used in the research, which were ranked first to fifteenth.

Mehdi Karami Dehkordi, Abdulmatin Miani,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (4-2021)

The world’s population has been growing rapidly in recent decades, and statistics show that most of the added population belongs to development countries. The majority of this population live in rural areas which has an unfavorable standard of living and livelihood compared to international standard. The basis of human and economic development is based on livelihood; livelihoods include all the things that people do to make a living. In addition, livelihoods are sustainable when they can adapt to pressures and shocks, improve and strengthen or maintain capabilities and assets in the present and future, while not destroying natural resources. Sustainable livelihood is a way to think about rural development, which for rural people it leads to higher incomes, increased welfare, reduced vulnerability, improved food security and more sustainable use of basic natural resources. According to statistics, 71% of Afghanistan’s population lives in rural areas and the livelihood of rural households in this country depends on agriculture, livestock and handicrafts. A large part of the country’s economy depends on rural products, and the products of farmers and ranchers make up most of the country’s export. It is worth noting that in rural areas of Afghanistan, few studies have been conducted on sustainable rural livelihoods, and accordingly the present study is one of the most innovative and leading researchers for this area.
Research Methodology
This is a qualitative study of the grounded theory type with the approach of Strauss and Corbin. The grounded theory method is commonly used to achieve theory, but it also has the ability to use its techniques in the form of other qualitative methods. Methods used to collect data include observation, Interviews, field notes and written and audio recordings made during the interviews. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to collect data. The current research integrated purposive and snowball samplings were used to collect data. Purposive sampling (also known as judgment, selective or subjective sampling) is a sampling technique in which researchers rely on their own judgment when choosing members of population to participate in the study. Snowball sampling method, initial subjects with the desired characteristics are identified using purposeful sampling technique. In this study, data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection and the researcher reached the theoretical saturation stage with 23 interviews.
Results and discussion
Based on the analysis, 220 codes were extracted from 23 interviews in three stages of open coding, axial coding and selective coding. Code analysis led to the identification of 27 subcategories. Finally, 19 main categories were extracted from their classification. Showed relationships between categories formed in the data that the pattern formed corresponds to the original shape of the paradigm pattern (Pattern or model) of Strauss and Corbin, that is the core category (access to sustainable livelihood) is affected by causal conditions and it influences the strategies themselves. Strategies in turn shape the consequences of the phenomenon under the influence of contextual and interventionist condition.
The causal categories of the paradigm are more dependent on agriculture, war and security challenges and the poor performance of the livestock and poultry sectors. According to the causal categories of the paradigm designed in the studied area, rural industries, rural services, livestock and poultry are very backward compared to the agriculture sector. This does not mean that the agriculture of the northern villages of Andar district is in a good condition. Rather, the monoculture of the rural economy (the majority of vineyards) with low productivity and efficiency in a traditional way has led the villages to an unfavorable living situation. In addition, due to various natural factors the risk of agricultural products is very high and has forced families to multiply their sources of incomes. But unfortunately, the increase in income depends on a particular sector (traditional agriculture). Therefore, in order to meet the economic needs of rural residents through the diversification of activities and income-generating methods, and to provide various job opportunities in this area, further encouragement should be provided.
The war and security challenges in Afghanistan have overshadowed every manufacturing and service sector and prevent any progress and it has caused the villagers to have no connection with the government and rural development department and to live in more deprivation. Rural areas have been severely damaged by war and security challenges, which have weakened the agricultural sector, demolished homes, disabled rural people and lacked investment. The population of the villages has multiplied compared to previous years, but no attention is paid to creating new job opportunities, which has led to rising unemployment, poverty and many livelihood challenges. One of the way to create new job opportunities in the studied villages is the multi-functional approach and abandoning single-function approach.

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