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Vahid Riahi, Hassan Momeni,
Volume 4, Issue 13 (11-2015)

Water resources are maybe the most important and the most necessary available resource for human and agriculture section. Agriculture section with almost 11 percent of gross domestic production, 23 percent of employment, and more than 80 percent of feeding the people of the country has a vital role in Iran's economy. Water as the most important factor in agriculture section, has a significant effect on agriculture production. Special climate conditions in Iran such as dry weather, inappropriate spatial and temporal rainfalls are inevitable realities which limit the production and sustainable agriculture management to use water resources of the country correctly and reasonably. In modern management theories that are related to water resources limitation, water is considered as a socioeconomic item and the first human need for different usages including agricultural use. It seems that there are many water resources, but, in fact, available water resources are limited. So, attention to type and method of supplying water resources for agriculture use and suitable usage of them for valuable productions can be helpful in the way of correct management and usage of water resources. This study aims to consider effective indicators in the method of water resources usage for agriculture development and management of water resources. So the aim of the study is to answer these questions: In the studied villages, how are basic water resources supplied? Which villages are more capable of supplying water?
This study is a descriptive-analytic one, which aims to assess the capability of water resources in agriculture section. Data collection has been done by using official and written documents; firstly through literature review and secondly by field study. In collecting official documents we used statistical documents of Iran's Statistic Center, Agriculture Organization of the province, Dehyari, health centers of the county, Rural Water Organization; and for field study we used the researcher's self-designed questionnaire. For these propose, water resources indicators, climates, geomorphology, economic, social and environmental factors are classified to 33 items which are related to this study. The study population includes Buin and Miandasht County, located in the west of Isfahan province. The population of this county has been more than 26000 people in 2011. This county has 46 residential villages and for sample population, 5 villages in different rural districts have been chosen according to parameters like dispersion, population and distance from the county's center. The county's center is Buin which means "warehouse"; it is located 250 km far from Isfahan and its elevation is 2450 meter above sea level. This county includes five districts: Yeelagh, Gorji, North Grachembo, South Grachembo, Sardsiri and five rural districts.
Discussion and Conclusion
Because of water resource limitation, water saving methods and reform of irrigation system should be focused and these activities play an important role in raising water resource capability. Even though there are many water resources, water stress is happening in some rural districts and studies show that more than two-thirds of the provinces in the country are facing with this phenomena. The study results showed that firstly new policies in exploiting water resources and land are necessary regarding to water resource capability in agriculture section, in rural districts. Secondly, correct management of water resources and increasing the efficiency of productivity, job creation and diversification of rural activities without considering capabilities of water resources in rural districts is impossible; and finally, low level of education has negative impacts on efficiency of productivity and also on modern methods of utilizing irrigation systems in the villages. Moreover, there is a direct relation between rainfall and the amount of production in rural districts; fluctuations of production are related to fluctuations in rainfall with an almost regular process and this indicates the lack of modern irrigation systems and dominance of traditional agriculture in the studied area. Considering the water resources of rural settlements in four different types, it was found that Dareh-hovz village is on the top and Masumabad village is on the down low and this ranking is related to environmental diversity. Regarding these issues and according to field studies and observations, it seems that focusing on infrastructures and tourism boom in Dareh-hovz village and development of agriculture in accordance with changes in cropping pattern and consumption pattern in the studied villages especially in Masumabad is necessary. In Dareh-hovz village, variety of economic activities including tourism, in one hand can play an important role in population stability of the village and in the other hand in decreasing the use of water resources in agriculture section. Finally, it can be said that separation of water resources in some villages around and catchment basins like Dashkesen and Aznaveleh villages need economic diversification.

Fatemeh Rostami, Ehsan Jabbari, Shahbakhti Rostami,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (2-2021)

According to the theoretical frameworks in the spatial analysis, every "structure" in space has a specific "function". To study phenomena and to identify the relationships between them, these two concepts are of particular importance, especially in the "structural-functional dynamism" approach. The basic premise of this approach is based on the existence of a link between the structure and function of phenomena, the output of which represents the capabilities of that system. If a watershed can be considered as a spatial structure, then the existing wells in the area would represent one of its functions in form of groundwater exploitation.
During the last three decades, the rapid increase in the population of urban centers adjacent to the Mahidasht watershed along with the change of cultivation pattern has led to the uncontrolled expansion of irrigation cultivation pattern, which in turn has led to excessive use of groundwater. For this reason, in the last four decades, the number of wells drilled in the study area has increased 23 times compared to the four decades before, from about 70 wells to more than 1,593 wells. Excessive exploitation of groundwater resources has led to an increase in the depth of wells and this, in turn, has led to lowering the groundwater level in the study area. Nowadays, this process has created some kind of zones that can be called critical zones in terms of increasing the depth of wells and water abstraction. In the present study, in order to determine and draw the map of such zones, the two main bases of spatial analysis, namely "position" and "distance" were applied, and common techniques and tools of GIS were used to analyze data related to wells in the study area.
Study area: Mahidasht watershed with an area of 1506.64 square kilometers and a perimeter of 239.9 kilometers is located in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. The area contains 132 springs, 14 Qanats (aqueducts) and 1593 wells.  
Data: The data applied in the present study include seven layers namely; Digital Elevation Model (DEM), wells, rivers, country divisions, catchment divisions, urban and rural settlements. They were obtained from the US Geological Survey (USGS), Kermanshah Regional Water Company and the Governor Office of Kermanshah, respectively. For spatial analysis based on the location and distance of wells, the following data were applied: year of drilling, depth, type of consumption, annual discharge rate, annual performance, discharge of each well (litters per second), location of settlements in the study area and their attributes. In terms of techniques, the following ones were applied: point in polygon, spatial join, buffering and spatial interpolation.

Techniques: In the present study, a table containing the coordinative and descriptive features of 1593 wells drilled in the Mahidasht watershed was converted into a point layer in ArcGIS. This layer, in addition to showing the distribution of wells in the region, was the basis for all other following analysis in this study. Mosaic, Extract, Hydrology, Thiessen Polygon and Natural Neighbor techniques and tools have also been applied to show and draw the final map of critical zones.
Discussion and results
The results of the present study indicated that in a chain process the following events have occurred in the study area:
  1. Rapid increase in the population of the region during the 1980s and 1990s led to the increasing use of various resources, including groundwater resources,
  2. The number of wells in the study area increased with unusual speed,
  3. Increasing the number of wells led to increasing the depth of wells over time, especially during the 2000s.
  4. Increasing the average depth of wells in Mahidasht watershed led to over-depletion of groundwater aquifers and lowering its level.
  5. All of the above have led to the creation of zones known as critical groundwater abstraction zones. The result of the present study is the calculating, determining and mapping these zones based on common techniques in spatial analysis. These critical zones are located in the lands of 61 villages and cover an area of 20,000 hectares.
However; despite the increase in the number of wells, the population of villages in the region has decreased. It means that the increase occurred in income due to the change of cultivation pattern from rain-fed to irrigated has not been invested in the villages of Mahidasht but has been transferred outside the region. Therefore, it can spatially be concluded that increasing the number of wells and high consumption of groundwater not only did not cause economic growth and prosperity in the villages of the region, but also has disturbed the ecological balance of the area. The last point is that; if no developmental measures are considered to improve and repair the conditions governing the critical zones in the study area, according to the structural-functional dynamism approach, it should be expected that change in a part of the spatial system will alter and even destroy the functions, structures and living space of the area. Thus, it can be concluded that, this problem can take the region away from the desired (and even minimum) conditions for a rational life and cause the destruction of other components of the system.

Mohsen Aghayari Hir , Mohammad Zahheri, Hossein Karimzadeh, Ali Majnuni Tutakhaneh,
Volume 10, Issue 36 (8-2021)

Due to its geographical location and climatic conditions, Iran is facing water shortages. A large part of the country is in arid and semi-arid climates. In addition to the dry weather of the country, mismanagement, short knowledge of farmers, outdated infrastructure, low level of technology have led to low water productivity in rural areas. The Qaleh chai watershed is one of the catchments located around Lake Urmia, which is facing water shortage due to drought conditions. This area with 36 villages is known as one of the hubs of agricultural and livestock production. According to the obtained data, the water efficiency level in the basin is less than 50%. Lack of water resources has led to the need to pay attention to ways to improve water efficiency. It seems that several factors play a role in the quantity and quality of water use, in other words, in the level of its productivity in The Qaleh Chai, and the most important ones include geographical conditions such as slope, location of villages, amount of products produced. Literacy level, number of rural households, water resources, amount of water available. By identifying and analyzing the factors affecting the promotion of water productivity in the basin, the amount of water productivity can be improved. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate and find a scientific answer to the question of what is the spatial distribution of factors affecting water productivity in villages located in The Qale chai? And to what extent can the studied variables explain the changes related to water productivity?
The research method is descriptive-analytical and inferential, which has based on documentary studies, libraries, and field studies. Local Moran correlation tests and geographic weight regression (GWR) tests were used to analyze the data. The variables used in this study included 19 environmental components affecting water productivity: Number and spatial distribution of springs, number and spatial distribution of wells, river water volume, water abstraction from wells, water abstraction from rivers, water abstraction from springs, length of concrete irrigation canals of all canals, the total volume of water in Consumption, number of households, unemployment rate, the employment rate in agriculture, literacy rate, rial value of tree products, rial value of rainfed products, rial value of summer crops, rial value of light livestock products, rial value of heavy livestock products, agricultural and medium irrigated land area Slope of villages to percent.
Water productivity has been used to calculate the rial value of livestock products, agricultural products, and human variables. The study area of this research is the Qaleh chai which has 36 villages located in it. The region of this basin is equal to 249.63 square kilometers, which has located in East Azerbaijan province and the southeast of Lake Urmia.
Discussion and conclusion
Research Findings show that the number of spring water resources is higher in mountainous villages and, the number of wells is higher in plain rural. The results of Moran showed that the variables of the Iranian Rial value of livestock production and the total amount of available water lack spatial autocorrelation. Also, the variable of the Iranian Rial value of all agricultural products has no spatial autocorrelation, but the total number of water resources has a spatial correlation. There is also an intense spatial correlation in the average slope of the villages, but the results of this test on the final water productivity lack spatial correlation. According to the results, the literacy variable of spatial autocorrelation is cluster type. The variables of household size and employment have no spatial correlation. Results The GWR regarding the causal role of the variable related to the final value of agricultural products and livestock products with water productivity showed that the last value of products with a correlation of R2 = 229 can explain water productivity. Based on the results of the geographical weight regression test, the value of R2 for social variables was equal to R2 = 0.129, which is lower than the final value variables of livestock and agricultural products.
Findings of this study show that factors such as the number of agricultural products produced, water resources, the volume of water available from water resources, land slope, number of water pumps and Iranian Rial value of livestock and agricultural products, literacy rate, employment rate, population have a significant relationship with water productivity. According to the research findings, it is clear that to achieve an efficient solution to improve water productivity in the villages located in the Qalah Chai watershed, it must have all the operative factors, including natural elements. Human factors, management factors, and physical characteristics are based on accurate, reliable data and planning occurrence.

Javad Vahabi, Mohammad Baset Ghoreishi , Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (4-2023)

The concept of water resources management changes over time with various factors, such as environmental knowledge, technology, and recognition of the difference in the value of water resources. Water resources management is affected by various economic, social, political, cultural, and technical factors. Accordingly, the concept of sustainable management of agricultural water resources has been raised in response to the issues of inappropriate use of water resources and harmful environmental effects and the traditional agricultural economy. Reducing water resources increases the cost of new water resource provision, and usually, developing countries cannot meet these costs. Therefore, the optimal consumption and the correct management of the supply and demand of existing water resources are proposed to meet the economic cost. Water will be an effective agent. Many scientists have studied the relationship between water and economic development from different aspects, for example, in the case of natural disasters like floods and droughts. The results of studies have shown that available water for agriculture and economic development, and investment in water infrastructure, especially in the agricultural sector, reduce poverty in some African countries. Development generally means improving the material and spiritual level of human society and creating suitable conditions for a healthy life for all members of society. According to this concept, development includes economic, social, political, and cultural aspects, which include quantitative and qualitative changes. The desired purpose of development is to improve the quality of life for everyone. Therefore, the effort to achieve development should be in a way that includes the interests of most people.

This article is a survey-based analysis, which means it focuses on a small portion of society, specifically village officials and farmer households in the study area. The necessary data was collected through a questionnaire. The statistical population of the research is the villages of the central floodplain of Gilan, which includes village officials and farmer households of the villages of the study area. 384 questionnaires were randomly completed. Then, the questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS software and with relevant statistical tests.

Discussion and conclusion
The results showed that, according to 50% of respondents, agricultural water resources management has a moderate effect on increasing the diversity of agricultural activities, 46.8% on increasing purchasing power and housing construction, and 42.2% on reducing costs. Production in the agricultural sector is considered low. From the perspective of 27.6% of respondents, the effect of agricultural water resource management on reducing production costs in the agricultural sector is high, and 44.3% has a moderate effect on the area under cultivation of agricultural products. According to the survey, 25.6% of respondents believe that the impact of agricultural water resource management on expanding the cultivation area of agricultural products is minimal. Out of the respondents, 38.3% believe that agricultural water resources management moderately improves their satisfaction with life in the village, while 29.7% think it also moderately enhances their satisfaction.
Additionally, 30.5% of the respondents stated that agricultural water resources management has significantly impacted increasing attention toward transformation industries in agriculture. It has been found through research that managing agricultural water resources has significant effects on various aspects of agriculture and rural communities. Specifically, it has a 34.7% impact on agricultural production growth, a 29.4% impact on agricultural output increase, a 50.3% impact on rural employment generation, and a 50.11% impact on the income and well-being of villagers in the central plains of Gilan Province.

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