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Ahmad Farahani, Falsoliman Mahmod, Mohamad Hajipour, Nahid Haghdost, Morteza Felezi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2013)

Nowadays information technology indices are being concerned as measures of development. This in turn will lead to many advantages’ in different areas
for the evolved party. However, rural development is responsible for social and cultural changes. These could be exemplified itself in increase in job opportunities and rural income, improvement in nutrition’s standards as well as educational and sanitation-medical status. The provision of these them could prevent irrational rural urban migration. The major objective of this study is to investigate the impact of information technology on job opportunities, self employed phenomena, job skill, relevant general knowledge’s, specialized knowledge’s, and last but not least rural urban migration. This study is composed of all rural settlers between 15-30 age brackets living in southern Khorasan villages which are exposed with ICT services the sampling technique was based on regular clustering. As such 386 were selected. The research method is composed of descriptive and in feral statistics. It is further supported by filling questionnaire. This study suggests that the targets of information technology are predominately young. In addition, there exists significant variation and differences between the level of information technologies acceptance and improvement in general and specialized rural knowledge’s as well as self employed and increase in job skills.

Alireza Bostani, Khadijeh Javani,
Volume 3, Issue 7 (6-2014)

Rural migration is being considered as an important phenomenon as far as the economic planners in developing counties are concerned. One type of this migration heading toward Arab neighboring countries located in Persian Golf Basin. The major objective of this study is to compare income level and standard of living of the rural migrants as opposed to non-migrant ones in Larestan County. Data were obtained via documentary as well as questionnaire. The study area is composed of ١٨ villages and ٤٠٠ rural households with both migrants and non-migrants members. Data analysis demands application of excel and SPSS as well as frequency table and chi square for confirming or rejecting the hypothesis. This study suggests remittance generated in Arab countries will lead to higher income as well as welfare for rural settlers. However, this study argues that this type of migration even though is associated with positive economic outcomes but at the same time to some extent possess some negative social impacts regarding rural settlers. This needs to be considered in the study of rural migration process.

Asghar Ahmadi, Jafar Yaghoubi, Bahman Khosravipour,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (5-2022)

Rural youth, as one of the most important human resources, constitutes a large part of the population and workforce of the rural community and play a valuable role in improving the economic and social situation of rural families. This is a capable resource to transform villages from unfavorable situation to favorable situation. Over the past few decades, migration has led to an aging rural population. Because most of the immigrants are young people, and often, they are the ones who tend to leave the villages to stay in the cities. Both migration and increasing age of the villagers become the main concern in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the situation and adopt scientific and executive strategies to manage it. In this paper, we study the migration motivation of rural students in field of agriculture at Zanjan University.

This research is an applied study which uses a survey in data collection and a correlation for analysis. In the present study, the factors affecting the migration motivation of rural youth were identified through a literature review and a research questionnaire was applied to find the correlation for the factors. The population of this study consisted of rural students studying in the fields of agriculture at University of Zanjan in 2018-2019 (N=210). The sample size was determined using the Krejcie & Morgan table (n=132). We used a stratified random sampling method to select the students for this study. Finally, the data were analyzed with SPSS software version 24.

Discussion and conclusion
The migration of educated youth from rural to urban areas is an alarming phenomenon in the geographical space of the country. The reason is that the situation can reduce the ability and motivation of the agricultural labor force in rural areas and lead to the waste of human capital in the country. Given that any planning in rural areas is directly and indirectly related to population structure and quality, it was important to study the factors affecting the willingness of moving out in rural youth.
The results showed that the number of family members living in the city, the desire to live in the village, life satisfaction, the amount of participation in agricultural activities, irrigated land owned by the family, accommodations and economic amenities in the urban areas and employment problem and difficulty of establishing business in the rural area are the most important reasons for the migration of agriculturally educated rural toung people.
Based on the results of logistic regression, the difficulty of establishing business in the rural area had the greatest impact on the inclination of migration. This finding reflects the fact that the most important priority of rural agricultural students is to achieve a job and create a business.  Thus, it is suggested that the problem needs to be solved by promising an employment package for the agriculturally educated rural youth. These packages consist of the cases of financing through the allocation of low-income employment loans with minimum bureaucracy, consulting and training to start the businesses required by the market and marketing and sales program. Also, based on the results of regression analysis, it was found that the two variables of life satisfaction and the amount of participation in agricultural activities had a positive effect on migration tendency. This indicates that the more satisfied young people are with their lives, the greater their desire to migrate. This finding, along with increasing the tendency to migrate by increasing the participation of the rural youth in agricultural activities, indicates the fact that the desire to migrate among young people is not due to ignorance and lack of knowledge but is based on the existing knowledge and realities of rural society. As students' experience and knowledge of the agricultural situation increase, they come to the unfortunate conclusion that migration is a better way to achieve their goals. Using exploratory factor analysis, strategies to strengthen the rural economy by increasing the desire of rural youth to live and work in rural areas after graduation were summarized in two factors including facilitating the market of products and employment in rural areas and developing public and private investment in rural areas and agriculture.


Fazlullah Ismaili, Fatemeh Azizi, Mehdi Khodadad,
Volume 11, Issue 40 (9-2022)

In recent years, we have seen an increase in population and the growth of migrations towards villages around Tehran. The reverse migration towards the suburban villages of Tehran can create a balancing mechanism for the migration of the accumulated labor force. This will require the improvement of the agricultural land and the creation of a social and economic environment for rural dwellers, so it can be reasonable for rural youth to stay in their homeland and make a living. 
Therefore, the current research first investigates the indicators of economic stability related to migration, which are income, capital, production, reducing the motivation to work in the agricultural sector, employment, diversification of the rural economy, and then evaluates the effects of migration on these indicators in the studied villages. Understanding the consequences of migration with the aim of limiting its negative effects can help villages with similar conditions. Because of the importance of the issue, especially in metropolitan areas and the necessity of studying it, the current research is based on this central question: "What results and consequences have the arrival of newcomers had in the economic dimension of the villages?

The research method in this study is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. 360 households out of 9591 households were determined as the sample size based on the Cochran formula. In the qualitative part of the research, using a targeted sampling method, the sample size was 36 people who were interviewed.

Discussion and conclusion
The findings of the research showed that the production indicator with an average of 2.2 and the employment indicator with an average of 4.13 received the highest and lowest impact from employment, respectively. Also, the results of the qualitative findings showed that the low impact of migration on creating employment is compensated by daily trips for work and activities outside the village. The amount of income from the point of view of local residents has been assessed as high and moderate, which is the reason that the local elites mentioned that new sources of income had been created for local residents. It should also be noted that the impact of immigration on capital was evaluated as moderate and low because the arrival of newcomers has led to the capitalization of land and housing, a process that has a negative effect on production due to land use change. For this reason, the production indicator has been affected by migration more than other indicators. The reduction in the amount of production and the variety of products in the villages is actually a decrease in agricultural activities and rurality in the villages around Tehran.                  


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