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Mojtaba Ghadiri Masoum, Mohamadreza Rezvani, Mahmoud Jomepour, Hamidreza Baghiani,
Volume 4, Issue 12 (9-2015)

Poverty is one of the greatest challenges confronting humanity. It is said that poverty is almost related to natural resources, while it is also because of some other factors like natural and human capitals. Villagers are considered among the poorest and most vulnerable within human societies, especially in the countries of the third world. If the purpose of development is obviously that of poverty alleviation and eradication through employment generation for the rural and urban poor, supplying the minimum of basic requirements acceptable to everyone, increase of productivity, causing more balance between geographic areas and socio-economic classes, decentralization and people involvement in the process of decision-making, having emphasis on collective and national self-confidence, finding balance and the recovery of living conditions, then we can consider the rural communities as one of the most significant factors causing the above objectives come true. So, rural development plays a vital role in achieving the overall objectives of development at the national level. Approaches and paradigms are always provided by scientists and theorists to assist us achieving the above objectives. In 1980s, sustainable livelihoods (LS) and sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) was proposed to be used a new approach in poverty eradication. The main emphasis of this approach was based on a comprehensive and integrated thought for poverty eradication and rural development. In a short time, this approach could attract the attention of many researches. Since, livelihood capitals is an important aspect of sustainable livelihoods approach and because of the important role of these assets in the livelihood of families, especially rural ones whose condition is influenced by tourism activities, in this research we decided to investigate the impact of tourism activities on livelihood capitals in mountain tourism villages of Bala-Taloqan in Taloqan County so we can find out the answer to the question that which villages are better in the case of this kind of capitals.
As a city of Alborz Province, Taloqan County is located at a distance of 90 km from the center of the province and within the northwest of it. In 2012, the city had 2 parts of central and Bala-Taloqan. It was also consisted of 8212 households and a population of 23765. Bala-Taloqan as the study case of this research consists of two rural districts: Kenar-rood and Joestan (central district) with 48 residential villages. In this paper, we have selected 10 mountain villages which have been affected by tourism. The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of prioritization of capitals resulting from tourism activities in mountain tourism villages of the district of top Talogan, among inhabited households using analytical- descriptive method with an emphasis on library work, field studies and completing the questionnaires. Meanwhile, hierarchical Filler Triangle was used as a model to weighting each indicator along with Oreste method for ranking and prioritization of the mountain tourism villages in terms of investigating the condition of tourism assets and capitals.
Discussion and Conclusion
Considering livelihood capitals, Galird has the best and the village of Manglan has the worst condition. Galirad village, according to its proper position relative to the connecting roads and its distinctive tourist attractions, i.e. the old house of Ayatollah Taleqani, enjoys a certain reputation that has caused more tourists go there. Moreover, Guidance plan has been already implemented in the village that is important in the improvement of connecting roads quality and making easy-access roads. After Galird, Karkbud village is located in the second place. Its famous waterfall is the most important attraction of the village which has given it a national reputation. Although, it has located at an altitude of 2200 meters and it is difficult to access it, the attractive waterfall has compensated for this limitation and attracted tourists. Additionally, the village is very rich in terms of natural capital, but tourism has not developed enough and has failed to make the promotion of other capitals. The results of interviews conducted with residents indicate that they are dissatisfied with tourists there and think of them as a contributing factor to environmental degradation and the rise of social abnormalities. Joestan has also dedicated to the third place of this ranking. Vicinity to Shahrood River and the presence of tomb shrine of Haron the son of Muses, are the most important attractions of this village. Although it is the center of Top Talogan district, it has failed to accomplish its central role. So, many people have left the village over time as even the tomb shrine as a strong religious attraction with lodging facilities has not been able to properly accomplish its role of attracting tourists. For this reason, it is only social capitals, and partially, financial capitals, which have perfect situations here. Other villages have similar status and in spite of having human and natural attractions they have not been successful enough in collecting capitals. Of course, it must be mentioned that in this district tourism is mostly found in the form of Daily tourism and second home tourism by a more percentage of Daily tourists than the second-home ones. Because in the mountain villages studied, due to the lack of access to adequate lands with sufficient slopes in order to construct housing units, there have always been lots of limitations for constructing second houses for the non-native. Additionally, in some villages such as Karkbood, native people refuse to sell lands to the non-native and this could affect the status of financial capital of the village.

Ali Alimadadi, Abdolhamid Nazari, Mahmood Moradi, Ramin Ghaffari,
Volume 5, Issue 16 (8-2016)

According to general census in 2011, rural population of the country has been over 21 million and 603 thousand people. Considering the per capita monthly subsidy equivalent to 455,000 riyals, it can be resulted that in the first three years of the project, over 353 trillion has been allocated to rural community. Calculations show that this amount is equivalent to 2.4% of the total budget intended for this period of time. It was the first time that this amount of cash was being directly distributed among villagers by its cost and expenditure management being transferred to the families themselves. It seems that this method of paying subsidies has greatly influenced on economic and social status of rural communities.
Considering economic and cultural structure of rural societies together with attempts to remedy the lack of liquidity, a large amount of subsidies granted is spending for household livelihood expenses such as food, non-food and service expenses. Therefore, in this article we are intended to investigate the impacts of targeted subsidies on the current status of livelihood expenses of rural households in different social strata as well as making a comparison of targeted subsidies in two geographical areas (Kalat and Binalud). Generally, in this research we are trying to find answers to the questions that: 1) how is the position of natural resources, economic capital and people s income in rural areas of Kalat and Binalud (Torghabeh Shandiz)? 2) How did targeted subsidies affect to change patterns of livelihood expenses in different classes of rural areas in the County of Kalat and Binalud? And is there any significant difference between the two areas or not?
This research is an applied one which has been provided using the quantitative approach of descriptive-analytical. This is an exploratory research, as well. Basically, it has been done using the principals of survey researches which has investigated the effects of targeted subsidies (independent variable) on livelihood expenses of rural households (dependent variable) applying post event processing. This research has done in the two cities of Kalat and Binalud located in Khorasan Razavi. There are two reasons for choosing these cities. First, these are greatly influenced by their position i.e., they are located near the metropolitan County of Mashhad. Then, due to the border location of the two cities, not many researchers have concentrated on the matter of development in these areas, yet. So, due to the importance of environmental contrasts in geography, data analysis has been conducted using comparative approach that helped us study different aspects of the matter to determine and classify the role of different geographical foundations (including natural conditions, the distribution of basic economic resources, income, and social conditions) in class differences among rural groups. We have eventually compared the impact of paying subsidies on the increase of income and consequently on changing spending patterns of livelihood expenses by the residents of the two areas. Questionnaires providing in two types of qualitative and quantitative are being considered as the main tools of the study. Quantitative questions are mostly intended to answer the first question of the research which includes some issues of households' social features (population, age, gender, education) and economic resources (occupation, expenses and income, land, livestock, housing, and machinery resources). Qualitative questions aim at the investigation of changes in spending patterns by rural households to answer the second question arose in the research. This type of questions consist of 8 main components (food and non-food items, educational, medical, and healthcare expenses, communication services, tourism, Energy, agricultural institutions) of more than 54 reagents.
Discussion and conclusion
Emphasizing sustainable livelihoods approach, this research aims at analyzing consequences of targeted subsidies plan on the changes in spending patterns in different social strata of rural communities. Then, comparing the results in the two areas of Kalat and Binalud we will be able to examine the impact of geographical factors. As contrasting foundations of every natural area can be considered to be the basis of economic and social differences of different societies that may be changed later by the government policies. According to the survey, particular environmental situations and capacities of rural settlements in each of these areas has made different economic functions at regional level related to local communications and its connection with the metropolitan County of Mashhad. These factors are so much effective that each single one can cause long-time consolidation of special economic, social and cultural mechanisms in rural areas and geographical environments. There is no doubt that these factors firstly influence the economic business of the studied area. In Binalud, there are approximately 10 % of rich families by an average monthly income of higher than 20 million riyals which are owning of almost about 21% of economic resources. In return, the rest 70% of low-income families (less than 10 million riyals) are providing with 52% of economic resources. This situation indicates bigger class differences in this area.
The above mentioned indicators are not so much far from each other in Kalat. Additionally, different interactions and communications between urban and rural areas and their impacts on the households' livelihoods caused changes in spending patterns of rural households. Because,b 65% of Kalat villagers mentioned that, compared to the past, after receiving cash subsidies no change occurred in their spending. As an overall conclusion, the new method of targeted subsidies has relatively influenced the increase of income in lower social classes (about 15 to 25%) and somewhat moderated class differences. This factor has greatly affected spending patterns and made it improved, while it can be said that, due to the free price of subsidized goods, it didn’t lead to the sustainable livelihood of households.

Mehdi Karami Dehkordi, Abdulmatin Miani,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (4-2021)

The world’s population has been growing rapidly in recent decades, and statistics show that most of the added population belongs to development countries. The majority of this population live in rural areas which has an unfavorable standard of living and livelihood compared to international standard. The basis of human and economic development is based on livelihood; livelihoods include all the things that people do to make a living. In addition, livelihoods are sustainable when they can adapt to pressures and shocks, improve and strengthen or maintain capabilities and assets in the present and future, while not destroying natural resources. Sustainable livelihood is a way to think about rural development, which for rural people it leads to higher incomes, increased welfare, reduced vulnerability, improved food security and more sustainable use of basic natural resources. According to statistics, 71% of Afghanistan’s population lives in rural areas and the livelihood of rural households in this country depends on agriculture, livestock and handicrafts. A large part of the country’s economy depends on rural products, and the products of farmers and ranchers make up most of the country’s export. It is worth noting that in rural areas of Afghanistan, few studies have been conducted on sustainable rural livelihoods, and accordingly the present study is one of the most innovative and leading researchers for this area.
Research Methodology
This is a qualitative study of the grounded theory type with the approach of Strauss and Corbin. The grounded theory method is commonly used to achieve theory, but it also has the ability to use its techniques in the form of other qualitative methods. Methods used to collect data include observation, Interviews, field notes and written and audio recordings made during the interviews. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to collect data. The current research integrated purposive and snowball samplings were used to collect data. Purposive sampling (also known as judgment, selective or subjective sampling) is a sampling technique in which researchers rely on their own judgment when choosing members of population to participate in the study. Snowball sampling method, initial subjects with the desired characteristics are identified using purposeful sampling technique. In this study, data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection and the researcher reached the theoretical saturation stage with 23 interviews.
Results and discussion
Based on the analysis, 220 codes were extracted from 23 interviews in three stages of open coding, axial coding and selective coding. Code analysis led to the identification of 27 subcategories. Finally, 19 main categories were extracted from their classification. Showed relationships between categories formed in the data that the pattern formed corresponds to the original shape of the paradigm pattern (Pattern or model) of Strauss and Corbin, that is the core category (access to sustainable livelihood) is affected by causal conditions and it influences the strategies themselves. Strategies in turn shape the consequences of the phenomenon under the influence of contextual and interventionist condition.
The causal categories of the paradigm are more dependent on agriculture, war and security challenges and the poor performance of the livestock and poultry sectors. According to the causal categories of the paradigm designed in the studied area, rural industries, rural services, livestock and poultry are very backward compared to the agriculture sector. This does not mean that the agriculture of the northern villages of Andar district is in a good condition. Rather, the monoculture of the rural economy (the majority of vineyards) with low productivity and efficiency in a traditional way has led the villages to an unfavorable living situation. In addition, due to various natural factors the risk of agricultural products is very high and has forced families to multiply their sources of incomes. But unfortunately, the increase in income depends on a particular sector (traditional agriculture). Therefore, in order to meet the economic needs of rural residents through the diversification of activities and income-generating methods, and to provide various job opportunities in this area, further encouragement should be provided.
The war and security challenges in Afghanistan have overshadowed every manufacturing and service sector and prevent any progress and it has caused the villagers to have no connection with the government and rural development department and to live in more deprivation. Rural areas have been severely damaged by war and security challenges, which have weakened the agricultural sector, demolished homes, disabled rural people and lacked investment. The population of the villages has multiplied compared to previous years, but no attention is paid to creating new job opportunities, which has led to rising unemployment, poverty and many livelihood challenges. One of the way to create new job opportunities in the studied villages is the multi-functional approach and abandoning single-function approach.

Fatemeh Mozafari, Abdolhamid Nazari, Shahbakhti Rostami, Mostafa Shahinifar,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (12-2022)

One of the current plans of the Iranian government is the "Home Business Organization Plan" to solve the problem of unemployment, which started in 2010. Even though home businesses are generally neglected in the economy, they are essential to creating employment, increasing income, improving the quality of life, reducing poverty, and perpetuating the population in rural areas. Unemployed, low-income or no-income villagers have welcomed the "home business organization plan" in Ilam province due to the following issues: geographical isolation, mountainous nature, distance from industrial and service centers, incompatibility of water and soil resources, lack of facilities for water control and transfer, the predominance of micro-agricultural exploitation units, the low level of mechanization, the severe financial weakness of the private sector, migration and the weakness of the economic foundations of rural society and in general the traditional and livelihood structure of production. In the present study, the issue has been discussed only from the economic viewpoint. Its purpose is to explain the role of economic dimensions of home businesses in the sustainable livelihood of rural households. Therefore, the central question of the present paper is: to what extent has the creation and development of home businesses in terms of job creation and diversification, increasing income and empowering and reducing poverty affected improving the sustainable livelihood of rural households?

Research Methods:
The current research is descriptive-analytical, and its statistical population includes 1476 households receiving loans in-home businesses who live in 287 villages in Ilam province. Considering the number and dispersion of villages, their selection was made by the sampling method. First, the number of villages was limited to 56 using cluster sampling (considering the homogeneity of four factors: altitude, distance from the city center, number of households and loan receivers). Then, the number of sample households was estimated to be 200 according to Cochran's formula and selected by simple random method. Finally, the data was collected using a researcher-made questionnaire after confirming its validity and reliability. After confirming the data's normality through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-sample t-tests and confirmatory factor analysis were used to evaluate the hypothesis.

Results and Discussion: 
The conceptual basis of the current research is based on the strategy of "sustainable livelihood". Sustainable livelihood is not a "theory" but a strategy discussed in the scientific and executive circles of development programs in the framework of "sustainable development theory". This strategy has four environmental, economic, social and institutional dimensions. The first principle of the sustainable livelihood strategy emphasizes "focusing on people" and achieving sustainable development is considered an endogenous and bottom-up motivational movement. Nevertheless, according to the general structure of the organization and planning system of Iran, in which the "government" has a central role in carrying out any plan, and in terms of sustainable livelihood strategy, it is considered an external intervening factor with a top-down orientation, this paradox should be considered more seriously. The results showed that the creation of home businesses from the economic aspect in the job creation indicators, primarily the increase of women's jobs and the diversification of activities, had positive effects, which indicates its alignment with the standards of sustainable household livelihood strategy. Although the plan has been relatively successful in increasing income, it has not been very successful in terms of empowerment, especially poverty alleviation of the lower strata of society. The evaluation of the effectiveness of creating home businesses on the sustainability livelihood by the target community showed that the factors of job creation and diversification of activity with a particular value of 2.743 and variance percentage of 31.509, income generation and empowerment with a special value of 1.192 and the variance percentage of 13.263 and poverty alleviation with the value of 1.043 and the variance percentage of 11.249 are ranked first to third, respectively. In general, the performance of the mentioned plan can be evaluated as successful in creating jobs and diversifying the activities of the studied households. According to the indicators in the area of income increase, there is an unbalanced distribution of resources, income and investment power, which shows the weakness of the economic foundations and the undesired livelihood of the villagers of Ilam Province. In the field of poverty alleviation, the plan has not been very successful. The results of this research are fundamentally different from similar international studies and have some similarities with some similar national studies.

Nasrin Jalilian, Yaser Mohammadi,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (12-2022)

Currently, the issue of employment is one of the most critical social challenges in the country to deal with unemployment, or at least to prevent the spread of anomalies and social damages. Nowadays, rural communities, especially poor rural households, are mainly faced with information poverty, low skills, weak entrepreneurial culture and ethnic and tribal inequalities that distinguish them from other communities. The people of the rural community, especially those of the low-income groups and households that government institutions support, are involved with more issues and problems. Among these groups, women are exposed to poverty and gender discrimination more than men, and they are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. One way to reduce poverty and improve livelihoods, especially among rural women heads of households, is to provide them with microfinance in the form of providing self-sufficiency facilities and job creation through institutions such as the Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation.

This research has been conducted to study the role of employment loans on the sustainable livelihood of rural women heads of households. The research is a quantitative and applied study of nature and purpose. Also, in terms of the data collection method, it is survey research, and in terms of the data analysis method, it is descriptive-correlation research. The statistical population of this research was the rural women who were the heads of the household, whom the relief committee covered in Harsam village, Islamabad Gharb city in Kermanshah province, and 100 of these women were selected and examined by the census. The data was collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, the validity of which was confirmed by experts' opinions and its reliability by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data analysis was done in the IBMSPSS software environment.

Discussion and conclusion
The results of the study showed that the two groups of female heads of households who benefited and did not benefit from the aid committee's job creation loans had a significant difference in terms of sustainable rural livelihoods, and the beneficiary women had better livelihoods, especially in terms of financial capital and physical capital. Also, among the women benefiting from good-quality loans, those who were satisfied with the number of loans received and their repayment period and also participated in skill training courses to create jobs had a higher level of sustainable livelihood.


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