Volume 6, Issue 4 (3-2020)                   Human Information Interaction 2020, 6(4): 1-12 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Naderbeigi F, Isfandyari-Moghaddam A, Zarei A, Bayat B. Information Avoidance in the mirror of literature: A systematic review. Human Information Interaction 2020; 6 (4)
URL: http://hii.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2888-en.html
Department of Knowledge and Information Science, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch
Abstract:   (2588 Views)
Purpose and background: One usually think of information as means to an end.  Despite the excessive worth of information - contrary to man's inherent need for awareness - some avoid information, favoring ignorance over knowledge. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the concept of information evasion, consequences and factors influencing it.
Methodology: The study was a systematic review of literature associated with information avoidance. Initially, terms such as "Information rejection," "Information escape,"  "Information avoidance,"   "Nonuse of information" were searched in the WoS and Scopus citation databases, as well as the Persian databases of Noormags, Sid, Elmnet, and the comprehensive humanities portal. MAXQDA software was used to study and analyze the literature.
Findings: Information avoidance is a set of selective behaviors and actions intended to stop, limit, and/or delay the search for, the encounter with, the processing of, and/or the use of unpleasant information. Information avoidance is multidimensional information. Various factors affect information avoidance some of which are personal, and some are environmental. Information avoidance has many types, including active and passive, comprehensive and selective, deliberate and defensive.
Conclusion: Some people avoid information by predicting the impact of information on their present or future lives. Information avoidance is still not well understood because a good deal of research has focused on information avoidance from a specific perspective. Although research streams cross at various points in terms of information avoidance. Given the harmful consequences of information avoidance, research policy should pay special attention to this issue so that, with the help of researchers in other fields, a solution can be found.
Full-Text [PDF 1296 kb]   (789 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special

1. Aharon, D. Y., & Qadan, M. (2 Case, D. O. (2002). Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking. Needs and Behavior (2nd edn)(Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2007).‌018). What drives the demand for information in the commodity market?. Resources Policy, 59, 532-543.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1016/j.resourpol.2018.09.013]
2. Behimehr, S. &, Mansourian, Y. (2018).The Role of Cognitive Biases in scientific information behavior of postgraduate students in Kharazmi University. Human Info Interact. 5 (1). (Persian).
3. ‌‫Barbour, J. B., Rintamaki, L. S., Ramsey, J. A., & Brashers, D. E. (2012). Avoiding health information. Journal of health communication, 17(2), 212-229.‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1080/10810730.2011.585691] [PMID]
4. ‌‫Bina, S., & Browne, G. (2018). Information Avoidance in Requirements Determination for Systems Development https://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2018/AdvancesIS/Presentations/20‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
5. Blajer-Gołębiewska, A., Wach, D., & Kos, M. (2018). Financial risk information avoidance. Economic research-Ekonomska istraživanja, 31(1), 521-536.‌‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1080/1331677X.2018.1439396]
6. ‌‫‌‫ Case, D. O. (2002). Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking. Needs and Behavior (2nd edn)(Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2007).‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
7. Chae, J. (2016). Who avoids cancer information? Examining a psychological process leading to cancer information avoidance. Journal of health communication, 21(7), 837-844‌. [DOI:10.1080/10810730.2016.1177144] [PMID]
8. ‌‫Chae, J., Lee, C. J., & Kim, K. (2019). Prevalence, Predictors, and Psychosocial Mechanism of Cancer Information Avoidance: Findings from a National Survey of US Adults. Health communication, 1-9.‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1080/10410236.2018.1563028] [PMID]
9. ‌‫Chang, B. P., Webb, T. L., & Benn, Y. (2017). Why do people act like the proverbial ostrich? Investigating the reasons that people provide for not ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00152]
10. monitoring their goal progress. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 152.‌‬‬‬‬
11. ‌‫Charpentier, C. J., Bromberg-Martin, E. S., & Sharot, T. (2018). Valuation of knowledge and ignorance in mesolimbic reward circuitry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(31), E7255-E7264.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1073/pnas.1800547115] [PMID] []
12. ‌‫Chater, N., & Loewenstein, G. (2016). The under-appreciated drive for sense-making. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 126, 137-154.‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2015.10.016]
13. ‌‫Choo, C. W. (2017). Seeking and avoiding information in a risky world. Information Research: An International Electronic Journal, 22(3), n3.‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
14. Dali, K. (2018a ). The lifeways we avoid: The role of information avoidance in discrimination against people with disabilities. Journal of Documentation, 74(6), 1258-1273.‌ [DOI:10.1108/JD-04-2018-0057]
15. Dali, K. (2018b ). The right to be included: Ensuring the inclusive learning and work environment for people with disabilities in academia. Information and Learning Science, 119(9/10), 486-513.‌‌‫ ‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1108/ILS-04-2018-0032]
16. ‌‫Emanuel, A. S., Kiviniemi, M. T., Howell, J. L., Hay, J. L., Waters, E. A., Orom, H., & Shepperd, J. A. (2015). Avoiding cancer risk information. Social Science & Medicine, 147, 113-120.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.10.058] [PMID] []
17. Erdelez, S.,& Mansourian, Y. (2012). Current Approaches and Trends in Information Behavior Studies "in an interview with Professor Sanda Ardales." ketab_ e mahe_e kolliyat, 183 (16), 4-7.
18. ‌‫‌‬Gaspar, R., Luís, S., Seibt, B., Lima, M. L., Marcu, A., Rutsaert, P., ... & Barnett, J. (2016). Consumers' avoidance of information on red meat risks: information exposure effects on attitudes and perceived knowledge. Journal of Risk Research, 19(4), 533-549.‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1080/13669877.2014.1003318]
19. Golman, R., Hagmann, D., & Loewenstein, G. (2017). Information avoidance. Journal of Economic Literature, 55(1), 96-135. [DOI:10.1257/jel.20151245]
20. Gong, Y., Wang, M., & Dlugosch, D. (2019). Impacts of ambiguity aversion and information uncertainty on momentum: An international study. Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, 55, 1-28.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.pacfin.2019.01.011]
21. ‌‌‫‌‫Goodall, C. E., & Reed, P. (2013). Threat and efficacy uncertainty in news coverage about bed bugs as unique predictors of information seeking and avoidance: An extension of the EPPM. Health communication, 28(1), 63-71.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1080/10410236.2012.689096] [PMID]
22. Harkin, B. (2017). Improving financial management via contemplation: novel interventions and findings in laboratory and applied settings. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 327.‌ [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00327] [PMID] []
23. Heck, P. R., & Meyer, M. N. (2019). Information avoidance in genetic health: Perceptions, norms, and preferences. Social Cognition, 37(3), 266-293.‌ [DOI:10.1521/soco.2019.37.3.266]
24. Hertwig, R., & Engel, C. (2016). Homo ignorans: Deliberately choosing not to know. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(3), 359-372.‌ [DOI:10.1177/1745691616635594] [PMID]
25. ‌‫Hertwig، R.، و Engel، ‌‫Hirvonen, N., Korpelainen, R., Pyky, R., & Huotari, M. L. (2015, November). Health information literacy and stage of change in relation to physical activity information seeking and avoidance: A population-based study among young men. In Proceedings of the 78th ASIS&T Annual Meeting: Information Science with Impact: Research in and for the Community (p. 34). American Society for Information Science.‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
26. Hosseini, E., & Erfanmanesh. M A. )2014). Sources of anxiety during information seeking process. Human Info Interact. 1 (3).(Persian)
27. Houston, R., & Westbrook, L. (2013). Information‐based mitigation of intimate partner violence. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(8), 1694-1706.‌ [DOI:10.1002/asi.22889]
28. Houston, R. D. (2009). A model of compelled nonuser of information, (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Austin, University of Texas at Austin.
29. Howell, J. L., & Shepperd, J. A. (2012). Reducing information avoidance through affirmation. Psychological science, 23(2), 141-145. [DOI:10.1177/0956797611424164] [PMID]
30. Howell, J. L., Crosier, B. S., & Shepperd, J. A. (2014). Does lacking threat-management resources increase information avoidance? A multi-sample, multi-method investigation. Journal of Research in Personality, 50, 102-109.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2014.03.003]
31. Howell, J. L., Ratliff, K. A., & Shepperd, J. A. (2016). Automatic attitudes and health information avoidance. Health Psychology, 35(8), 816.‌ [DOI:10.1037/hea0000330] [PMID]
32. Howell, J. L., Redford, L., Pogge, G., & Ratliff, K. A. (2017). Defensive responding to IAT feedback. Social Cognition, 35(5), 520-562.‌ [DOI:10.1521/soco.2017.35.5.520]
33. ‌‫Howell، J. L.، و Shepperd،Howell, J. L., & Shepperd, J. A. (2016). Establishing an Information Avoidance Scale. Psychological assessment, 28(12), 1695.‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1037/pas0000315] [PMID]
34. Howell, J. L., & Shepperd, J. A. (2017). Social exclusion, self-affirmation, and health information avoidance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 68, 21-26.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.jesp.2016.05.005]
35. Howell, J. L., Sweeny, K., Miller, W., & Shepperd, J. A. (2019). Hot or not? How self-view threat influences avoidance of attractiveness feedback. Self and Identity, 18(2), 144-158.‌ [DOI:10.1080/15298868.2017.1401552]
36. Hoy, M. G., & Levenshus, A. B. (2018). A mixed-methods approach to assessing actual risk readership on branded drug websites. Journal of Risk Research, 21(5), 521-538. [DOI:10.1080/13669877.2016.1223160]
37. Huang, S. C. (2018). Social information avoidance: when, why, and how it is costly in goal pursuit. Journal of Marketing Research, 55(3), 382-395. [DOI:10.1509/jmr.16.0268]
38. Kahlor, L. A., Olson, H. C., Markman, A. B., & Wang, W. (2018). Avoiding Trouble: Exploring Environmental Risk Information Avoidance Intentions. Environment and Behavior, 0013916518799149.‌ [DOI:10.1177/0013916518799149]
39. Kolarić, A., Cool, C., & Stričević, I. (2018). Adolescent information behaviour in everyday life decision making. Vjesnik bibliotekara Hrvatske, 61(1), 83-125.‌ [DOI:10.30754/vbh.61.1.648]
40. Kiani, M.R.(2013). Analysis & Model testing of Relations among Compelled-Cognitive Non-use of information with Cognitive avoidance, Negative problem orientation & Intolerance of uncertainty: based on Houston taxonomy, (doctoral dissertation). Mashhad, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (Persian).
41. Lallement, J., Dejean, S., Euzéby, F., & Martinez, C. (2019). The interaction between reputation and information search: Evidence of information avoidance and confirmation bias. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.03.014]
42. Lambert, S. D., Loiselle, C. G., & Macdonald, M. E. (2009). An in-depth exploration of information-seeking behavior among individuals with cancer: part 1: understanding differential patterns of active information seeking. Cancer Nursing, 32(1), 11-23.‌ [DOI:10.1097/01.NCC.0000343372.24517.bd] [PMID]
43. ‌‫Liao, Y., Jindal, G., & Jean, B. S. (2018, March). The Role of Self-efficacy in Cancer Information Avoidance. In International Conference on Information (pp. 498-508). Springer, Cham.‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-78105-1_54]
44. Lipsey, N. P., & Shepperd, J. A. (2019a ). Powerful audiences are linked to health information avoidance: Results from two surveys. Social Science & Medicine, 225, 51-59.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.01.046] [PMID]
45. Lipsey, N. P., & Shepperd, J. A. (2019b). The role of powerful audiences in health information avoidance. Social Science & Medicine, 220, 430-439. [DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.11.037] [PMID]
46. Loiselle, C. G. (2019). Cancer information-seeking preferences linked to distinct patient experiences and differential satisfaction with cancer care. Patient education and counseling, 102(6), 1187-1193.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2019.01.009] [PMID]
47. Lu, Y. L. (2010). Children's information seeking in coping with daily-life problems: An investigation of fifth-and sixth-grade students. Library & Information Science Research, 32(1), 77-88.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.lisr.2009.09.004]
48. ‌Manheim, L. (2014). Information non-seeking behaviour. Information Research, 19(4).
49. McCloud, R. F., Okechukwu, C., Sorensen, G., & Viswanath, K. (2017). Cigarette graphic health warning labels and information avoidance among individuals from low socioeconomic position in the US. Cancer Causes & Control, 28(4), 351-360.‌ [DOI:10.1007/s10552-017-0875-1] [PMID]
50. McCloud, R. F., Jung, M., Gray, S. W., & Viswanath, K. (2013). Class, race and ethnicity and information avoidance among cancer survivors. British journal of cancer, 108(10), 1949.‌ [DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.182] [PMID] []
51. Mckie, I. (2018). Navigating "Mixedness": The Information Behaviours and Experiences of Biracial Youth in Australia. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: an Interdisciplinary Journal.‌ [DOI:10.5130/ccs.v10i2.5941]
52. Melnyk, D. (2009). When we do not want to know: The Information Avoidance Model. University of Florida.‌
53. Melnyk, D., & Shepperd, J. A. (2012). Avoiding risk information about breast cancer. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 44(2), 216-224.‌ [DOI:10.1007/s12160-012-9382-5]
54. Miles, A., Voorwinden, S., Chapman, S., & Wardle, J. (2008). Psychologic predictors of cancer information avoidance among older adults: the role of cancer fear and fatalism. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 17(8), 1872-1879. [DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0074]
55. Mohammadi, M., & Isfandyari-Moghaddam, A. (2012). Some issues on impacts and characteristics of information as wealth in the new economy. International Journal of Information Science and Management (IJISM), 6(2), 37-47.
56. Neben, T. (2015). A Model of Defensive Information Avoidance in Information Systems Use http://aisel.aisnet.org/icis2015/proceedings/ConferenceTheme/3
57. ‬Neben, T., Heinzl, A., & Browne, G.J. )2018(. Defensive Information Avoidance: Outcomes of Meaning Framework Violations in Computer-Mediated Work. (Unpublished Working Paper), University of Mannheim.
58. Nelissen, S., Beullens, K., Lemal, M., & Van den Bulck, J. (2015). Fear of cancer is associated with cancer information seeking, scanning and avoiding: a cross‐sectional study among cancer diagnosed and non‐diagnosed individuals. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 32(2), 107-119.‌‬ [DOI:10.1111/hir.12100] [PMID]
59. Niknia, M., & Mansourian, Y. (2016). Representing the conceptual links of three theories of information behavior on the basis of the semantic process. Information and Communication Quarterly Book Review, 3 (12), 207-223. (Persian. (
60. Persoskie, A., Ferrer, R. A., & Klein, W. M. (2014). Association of cancer worry and perceived risk with doctor avoidance: an analysis of information avoidance in a nationally representative US sample. Journal of behavioral medicine, 37(5), 977-987.‌‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ [DOI:10.1007/s10865-013-9537-2] [PMID]
61. Price, D. M., Howell, J. L., Gesselman, A. N., Finneran, S., Quinn, D. M., & Eaton, L. A. (2019). Psychological threat avoidance as a barrier to HIV testing in gay/bisexual men. Journal of behavioral medicine, 42(3), 534-544.‌ [DOI:10.1007/s10865-018-0003-z] [PMID]
62. Pröllochs, N., Adam, M. T., Feuerriegel, S., & Neumann, D. (2018). Information Processing of Financial News: The Role of Cognitive Dissonance and Information Avoidance. In ECIS (p. 2).
63. Ramondt, S., & Ramírez, A. S. (2019). Assessing the impact of the public nutrition information environment: Adapting the cancer information overload scale to measure diet information overload. Patient education and counseling, 102(1), 37-42.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2018.07.020] [PMID] []
64. Salimifar, Z., & Jamali, H. R. (2015). Review of the Impact of Culture as a Contextual Factor on Information Behavior. Journal of Library and Information Science, 6(2), 41-60. (Persian. (
65. Savolainen, R. (2014). Emotions as motivators for information seeking: A conceptual analysis. Library & Information Science Research, 36(1), 59-65.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.lisr.2013.10.004]
66. Shani, Y., & Zeelenberg, M. (2012). Post-decisional information search: Balancing the pains of suspecting the worst with the comforts of knowing the worst. Social Influence, 7(3), 193-210.‌ [DOI:10.1080/15534510.2012.679219]
67. Simonet, E. N. C. (2015). An appointment with'Dr Google': Benefits and limitations of using internet‐based health information. Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin, 21(2), 7.
68. St. Jean, B., Jindal, G., & Liao, Y. (2017). Is ignorance really bliss?: Exploring the interrelationships among information avoidance, health literacy and health justice. Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 54(1), 394-404. [DOI:10.1002/pra2.2017.14505401043]
69. Sunstein, C. R. (2019). Ruining popcorn? The welfare effects of information. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 1-22. [DOI:10.1007/s11166-019-09300-w]
70. Sweeny, K. (2008). Crisis decision theory: Decisions in the face of negative events. Psychological bulletin, 134(1), 61. [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.134.1.61] [PMID]
71. Sweeny, K., Melnyk, D., Miller, W., & Shepperd, J. A. (2010). Information avoidance: Who, what, when, and why. Review of general psychology, 14(4), 340-353.‌ [DOI:10.1037/a0021288]
72. Taber, J. M., Klein, W. M., Ferrer, R. A., Han, P. K., Lewis, K. L., Biesecker, L. G., & Biesecker, B. B. (2015a). Perceived ambiguity as a barrier to intentions to learn genome sequencing results. Journal of behavioral medicine, 38(5), 715-726. [DOI:10.1007/s10865-015-9642-5] [PMID] []
73. Taber, J. M., Klein, W. M., Ferrer, R. A., Lewis, K. L., Harris, P. R., Shepperd, J. A., & Biesecker, L. G. (2015b). Information avoidance tendencies, threat management resources, and interest in genetic sequencing feedback. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 49(4), 616-621.‌ [DOI:10.1007/s12160-014-9679-7] [PMID] []
74. Thunström, L., Nordström, J., Shogren, J. F., Ehmke, M., & van't Veld, K. (2016). Strategic self-ignorance. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 52(2), 117-136.‌ [DOI:10.1007/s11166-016-9236-9]
75. Woolley, K., & Risen, J. L. (2018). Closing your eyes to follow your heart: Avoiding information to protect a strong intuitive preference. Journal of personality and social psychology, 114(2), 230.‌ [DOI:10.1037/pspa0000100] [PMID]
76. Yang, Z. J., & Kahlor, L. (2013). What, me worry? The role of affect in information seeking and avoidance. Science communication, 35(2), 189-212.‌ [DOI:10.1177/1075547012441873]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Human Information Interaction

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb