Volume 9, Issue 4 (volume9, Issue 4 2022)                   CPJ 2022, 9(4): 122-136 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mirzaie V, Tabatabaee S M, Makvand Hosseini S. The Effectiveness of Computer-based Cognitive Rehabilitation on Working Memory and Problem Solving of High School Students. CPJ 2022; 9 (4) : 126
URL: http://jcp.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3457-en.html
, s.mosatabatabaee@semnan.ac.ir
Abstract:   (3480 Views)
The aim of this study was to investigate The Effectiveness of Computer-based Cognitive Rehabilitation on Working Memory and Problem Solving of High School Students. Method: For this purpose, 30 high school students in Tehran were selected. These people were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups of 15 people in each group. The number and duration of each session in the experimental group were 16 sessions and each session was 45 minutes, respectively. The control group did not receive any intervention. Research instruments included the Wisconsin Card Classification Test. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and SPSS 26 software. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in both components of class and survival and the effect of computer rehabilitation intervention on the class component was 0.375, which is lower than average. And the volume of the effect of computer-based cognitive rehabilitation intervention on the survival component is equal to 0.546, which is higher than average. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, it can be said that computer-based cognitive rehabilitation intervention is effective on the Working Memory and Problem Solving of high school students.
Article number: 126
Full-Text [PDF 1305 kb]   (1000 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: psychology of human behavior
Received: 2021/07/13 | Accepted: 2022/02/2 | Published: 2022/02/6

1. Abbariki, Akram, Yazdanbakhsh, Kamran, & Momeni, Khodamorad. (2019). Investigating the effect of of computer-based cognitive rehabilitation on reducing cognitive avoidance in Students with Specific Learning disorder. Psychology of Exceptional Individuals, 9(33), 69-96. [DOI:10.22054/jpe.2019.35988.1860. [Persian]]
2. Ahghar, G. (2012). Effect of Problem-solving Skills Education on Auto-Regulation Learning of High School Students in Tehran. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 688-694. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.462 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.462.]
3. Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In The psychology of learning and motivation: II. (pp. xi, 249-xi, 249). [DOI:10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60422-3]
4. Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (1994). Developments in the concept of working memory. Neuropsychology, 8(4), 485-493. [DOI:10.1037/0894-4105.8.4.485]
5. Blair, C. (2016). Developmental Science and Executive Function. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25(1), 3-7. 10.1177/0963721415622634Bigler, R. S., & Liben, L. S. (1992). Cognitive mechanisms in children's gender stereotyping: Theoretical and educational implications of a cognitive-based intervention. Child Development, Vol. 63, pp. 1351-1363. 10.2307/1131561 10.2307/1131561 []
6. Cartwright, K. B. (2002). Cognitive development and reading: The relation of reading-specific multiple classification skill to reading comprehension in elementary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 56-63. 10.1037/0022-0663.94.1.56Eliasmith, C. (2013). How to Build a Brain. Oxford University Press. 10.1037/0022-0663.94.1.56 []
7. Chelune, G. J., & Baer, R. A. (1986). Developmental norms for the wisconsin card sorting test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 8(3), 219-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/01688638608401314 [DOI:10.1080/01688638608401314.]
8. Cicerone, K. D., Dahlberg, C., Malec, J. F., Langenbahn, D. M., Felicetti, T., Kneipp, S., … Catanese, J. (2005). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86(8), 1681-1692. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2005.03.024]
9. Cicerone, K. D., Goldin, Y., Ganci, K., Rosenbaum, A., Wethe, J. V., Langenbahn, D. M., … Harley, J. P. (2019, August 1). Evidence-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation: Systematic Review of the Literature From 2009 Through 2014. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2019.02.011]
10. Cicerone, KD, Langenbahn, D., Rehabilitation, C. B.-… and, & 2011, U. (2011). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: updated review of the literature from 2003 through 2008. Elsevier. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003999310009500 [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2010.11.015]
11. Cicerone, Keith, Dahlberg, C., & Kamar, K. (2000). Evideuce-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 81, 316-321. [DOI:10.1053/apmr.2000.19240]
12. Colzato, L. S., van Wouwe, N. C., Lavender, T. J., & Hommel, B. (2006). Intelligence and cognitive flexibility: fluid intelligence correlates with feature "unbinding" across perception and action. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13(6), 1043-1048. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03213923 [DOI:10.3758/bf03213923]
13. Constantinidis, C., & Klingberg, T. (2016). The neuroscience of working memory capacity and training. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 17. [DOI:10.1038/nrn.2016.43]
14. Coolican, H. (2009). Research methods and statistics in psychology, 5th ed. In Research methods and statistics in psychology, 5th ed. Hodder Education Group.
15. Deák, G. O. (2003). The Development of Cognitive Flexibility and Language Abilities. In Advances in child development and behavior, Vol. 31. (pp. 271-327). Deák, Gedeon O.: Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA, US, 92093-0515: Academic Press. [DOI:10.1016/S0065-2407(03)31007-9]
16. Dehn, M. J. (2008). Working Memory and Academic Learning: Assessment and Intervention.Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168. [DOI:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750]
17. Diamond, A. (2020). Executive functions. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 173, 225-240. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-64150-2.00020-4]
18. Elliott, T., Shewchuk, R., & Richards, J. (1999). Caregiver social problem-solving abilities and family member adjustment to recent-onset physical disability. Rehabilitation Psychology, 44, 104-123. [DOI:10.1037/0090-5550.44.1.104]
19. Friedenberg, J., & Silverman, G. (2012). Cognitive science: An introduction to the study of mind, 2nd ed. In Cognitive science: An introduction to the study of mind, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.
20. González-Palau, F., Franco, M., Toribio-Guzmán, J. M., Losada, R., Parra Vidales, E., & Bamidis, P. (2013). Designing a computer-based rehabilitation solution for older adults: The importance of testing usability. PsychNology Journal, 11, 119-136.
21. Heaton, R. K., Chelune, C., Talley, J., Kay, G. G., & Curtiss, G. (1993). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual@_ Revised and Expanded.
22. Homack, S., & Riccio, C. A. (2004). A meta-analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the Stroop Color and Word Test with children. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology : The Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 19(6), 725-743. [DOI:10.1016/j.acn.2003.09.003]
23. Jitendra, A., Petersen-Brown, S., Lein, A., Zaslofsky, A., Kunkel, A., Jung, P.-G., & Egan, A. (2013). Teaching Mathematical Word Problem Solving. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48. [DOI:10.1177/0022219413487408]
24. Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2002). The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence: An individual-differences perspective. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(4), 637-671. [DOI:10.3758/BF03196323]
25. Kent, P. (2016). Working Memory: A Selective Review. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 5, 163-172. [DOI:10.1080/21622965.2016.1167491]
26. Kercood, S., Grskovic, J. A., Banda, D., & Begeske, J. (2014). Working memory and autism: A review of literature. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(10), 1316-1332. [DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.06.011]
27. Kesler, S. R., Lacayo, N. J., & Jo, B. (2011). A pilot study of an online cognitive rehabilitation program for executive function skills in children with cancer-related brain injury. Brain Injury, 25(1), 101-112. [DOI:10.3109/02699052.2010.536194]
28. Kopp, B., Lange, F., & Steinke, A. (2021). The Reliability of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Clinical Practice. Assessment, 28(1), 248-263. [DOI:10.1177/1073191119866257]
29. Kotwal, D. B., Burns, W. J., & Montgomery, D. D. (1996). Computer-Assisted Cognitive Training for ADHD: A Case Study. Behavior Modification, 20(1), 85-96. [DOI:10.1177/01454455960201004]
30. Leber, A. B., Turk-Browne, N. B., & Chun, M. M. (2008). Neural predictors of moment-to-moment fluctuations in cognitive flexibility. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 105, pp. 13592-13597. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.0805423105]
31. Lezak, M. D. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment. Oxford University Press.
32. Lezak, M., Howieson, D., Loring, D., & Fischer, J. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=FroDVkVKA2EC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=lezak,+m.+d.+(2012).+neuropsychological+assessment.+uk:+oxford+university+press.&ots=q60eXNRl9S&sig=xCb8CCQlPMV9Vhe-Rra3v_E-EWs
33. MacAllister, W. S., Maiman, M., Marsh, M., Whitman, L., Vasserman, M., Cohen, R. J., & Salinas, C. M. (2018). Sensitivity of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (64-Card Version) versus the Tower of London (Drexel Version) for detecting executive dysfunction in children with epilepsy. Child Neuropsychology : A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence, 24(3), 354-369. [DOI:10.1080/09297049.2016.1265101]
34. Maggio, M. G., De Luca, R., Molonia, F., Porcari, B., Destro, M., Casella, C., … Calabro, R. S. (2019). Cognitive rehabilitation in patients with traumatic brain injury: A narrative review on the emerging use of virtual reality. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience : Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia, 61, 1-4. [DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2018.12.020]
35. Mansbach, W. E., Mace, R. A., & Clark, K. M. (2017). The Efficacy of a Computer-Assisted Cognitive Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Mild Cognitive Deficits: A Pilot Study. Experimental Aging Research, 43(1), 94-104. [DOI:10.1080/0361073X.2017.1258256]
36. Martin, M. M., & Rubin, R. B. (1995). A new measure of cognitive flexibility. Psychological Reports, 76(2), 623-626. [DOI:10.2466/pr0.1995.76.2.623]
37. Mccloskey, G., Perkins, L., & Diviner, B. (2008). Assessment and Intervention for Executive Function Difficulties. Assessment and Intervention for Executive Function Difficulties, 1-362. [DOI:10.4324/9780203893753]
38. Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex "Frontal Lobe" tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49-100. [DOI:10.1006/cogp.1999.0734]
39. Montez, D. F., Calabro, F. J., & Luna, B. (2017). The expression of established cognitive brain states stabilizes with working memory development. ELife, 6. [DOI:10.7554/eLife.25606]
40. Montoya-Murillo, G., Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N., Peña, J., & Ojeda, N. (2020). Effects of Cognitive Rehabilitation on Cognition, Apathy, Quality of Life, and Subjective Complaints in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry : Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(5), 518-529. [DOI:10.1016/j.jagp.2019.10.011]
41. Moore, A., & Malinowski, P. (2009). Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(1), 176-186. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2008.12.008]
42. Nyhus, E., & Barceló, F. (2009). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the cognitive assessment of prefrontal executive functions: a critical update. Brain and Cognition, 71(3), 437-451. [DOI:10.1016/j.bandc.2009.03.005]
43. Ploog, B. O. (2013). Selective Attention. In F. R. Volkmar (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders (pp. 2700-2707). [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4419-1698-3_1932]
44. Rabiner, D. L., Murray, D. W., Skinner, A. T., & Malone, P. S. (2010). A randomized trial of two promising computer-based interventions for students with attention difficulties. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(1), 131-142. [DOI:10.1007/s10802-009-9353-x]
45. Scott, W. A. (1962). Cognitive complexity and cognitive flexibility. Sociometry, 25(4), 405-414. [DOI:10.2307/2785779]
46. Sidarta, A., van Vugt, F. T., & Ostry, D. J. (2018). Somatosensory working memory in human reinforcement-based motor learning. Journal of Neurophysiology, 120(6), 3275-3286. [DOI:10.1152/jn.00442.2018]
47. Son, J.-W., & Lee, M. (2020). Exploring the Relationship Between Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of Problem Solving and Their Problem-Solving Performances. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. [DOI:10.1007/s10763-019-10045-w]
48. Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Dalen, L., Daley, D., & Remington, B. (2002). Are planning, working memory, and inhibition associated with individual differences in preschool ADHD symptoms? Developmental Neuropsychology, 21(3), 255-272. [DOI:10.1207/S15326942DN2103_3]
49. Spreen, O., & Strauss, E. (1998). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary, 2nd ed. In A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary, 2nd ed. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.
50. Squire, L. R. (1987). Memory and brain. In Memory and brain. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-268330-5.50013-5]
51. Steiner, N. J., Frenette, E. C., Rene, K. M., Brennan, R. T., & Perrin, E. C. (2014). In-school neurofeedback training for ADHD: sustained improvements from a randomized control trial. Pediatrics, 133(3), 483-492. [DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-2059]
52. Steiner, N. J., Sheldrick, R. C., Gotthelf, D., & Perrin, E. C. (2011). Computer-based attention training in the schools for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary trial. Clinical Pediatrics, 50(7), 615-622. [DOI:10.1177/0009922810397887]
53. Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(6), 643-662. [DOI:10.1037/h0054651]
54. Taghizadeh, T., Nejati, V., Mohammadzadeh, A. L. I., & Akbarzade Baghban, A. (2014). Evolution of auditory and visual working memory in primary schoolaged children. Journal of research in rehabilitation sciences, 10(2), 239-249. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/viewpaper.aspx?id=426535. [In Persian]
55. Valera, E. M., & Seidman, L. J. (2006). Neurobiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschoolers. Infants & Young Children, 19(2). Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/iycjournal/Fulltext/2006/04000/Neurobiology_of_Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity.3.aspx [DOI:10.1097/00001163-200604000-00003]
56. Wang, L., Kakigi, R., & Hoshiyama, M. (2001). Neural activities during Wisconsin Card Sorting Test--MEG observation. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research, 12(1), 19-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6410(01)00022-2 [DOI:10.1016/s0926-6410(01)00022-2]
57. Wecker, N. S., Kramer, J. H., Wisniewski, A., Delis, D. C., & Kaplan, E. (2000). Age effects on executive ability. Neuropsychology, 14(3), 409-414. [DOI:10.1037//0894-4105.14.3.409]
58. Wiest, D., Wong, E., Bacon, J., Rosales, K., & Wiest, G. (2020). The Effectiveness of Computerized Cognitive Training on Working Memory in a School Setting. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 34. [DOI:10.1002/acp.3634]
59. Zelazo, P. D., & Frye, D. (1998). Cognitive complexity and control: II. The development of executive function in childhood. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7(4), 121-126. [DOI:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10774761]
60. Zhang, H., Zhou, H., Lencz, T., Farrer, L., Kranzler, H., & Gelernter, J. (2018). Genome-wide association study of cognitive flexibility assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 177, 511-519. [DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32642]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | فصلنامه روانشناسی شناختی

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb