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Showing 6 results for Subject: Psychology

Dr. Ebrahim Ahmadi,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (1-2022)

According to history, humans have never stopped fighting with each other and this endlessness and permanence of wars cannot have only external causes (threats) rather, it also has internal and psychological causes and identifying these causes is essential to reducing wars. The present study aimed to identify one of the psychological causes of the endlessness of human wars and assumed that war gives meaning to human life and therefore, humans do not like to end it. In order to test this hypothesis, 397 participants (190 males) with a mean age of 35 years were employed for this study among 30,000 subscribers of Hamrahe Aval and Irancell in Tehran and Karaj. In an experimental study, participants were randomly assigned to experimental group (which the Iran-Iraq war was highlighted in their minds) and control group (which the scientific advances of the Iranians were highlighted in their minds) and then meaning making from wars (mediating variable) was measured by Tedeschi and Calhoun (1996) test and agreement with militarism/permanence of wars (dependent variable) was measured by Vail and Motyl (2010) test. ANOVAs showed that experimental group makes meaning from wars and agrees with militarism/permanence of wars more than control group, and conditional process modeling showed that the salience of war in the minds of the subjects has led to agreement with the militarism/permanence of war "through" the meaning making from wars. So, humans get the meaning of life from war, and this is one of the reasons why human wars are endless.

Hamid Khanipur, Mobina Radfar, Maedeh Pour Torogh, Masoud Geramipour,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (10-2022)

The process Assessment of the Learner-Second Edition: Diagnostic Assessment for Math is one of the most widely used tests in the field of learning disorders, which has two versions: reading, writing, and math. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the educational and cultural adaptation of this test. For this purpose, after the translation of the test, the stages of cultural adaptation were investigated from three sources of elementary school mathematics textbooks, interviews with teachers and test implementation of the test on a group of 14 children from preschool to sixth grade, applicability and Special criteria for the implementation of the test were prepared for Iranian students. There has been an amendment to the content of the Iranian sample test in terms of the items of multi-step problem-solving and part-whole concepts. Also, the criteria for passing the test for Iranian students in the sub-tests of place value, finding the bug, and the ability to perform calculations are placed at a higher age than the main instructions of the test. Geometry and decimal numbers are items that are covered in the Pal_II math test in the form of part_whole concepts. However, it is more detailed and complicated in Iranian math textbooks. Calculation education in Iran's school education system has undergone changes in recent years, which were revised in the test instructions. The similarities between the implementation and grading of the Persian version of the Pal_II math test in the Iranian sample and the original instructions of the English version of the test are more than the differences between them.

- Shayesteh Sajadi, - Mahboubeh Fooladchang, - Farideh Yousefi, Raziyeh Sheykh Alislami,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (3-2023)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mindfulness-based education on two structures related to cognition, namely self-blame and working memory in adolescents. The research design was quasi-experimental with a control group. Participants included 30 people (two groups of 15 people) from adolescents aged 14 to 18 years who volunteered to participate in the study. They responded to the Thompson and Containers' Self-Blame Levels (2004), and the Wechsler Active Memory Scale (1945) as pretest and posttest. The experimental group participated in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for 8 sessions, each session lasting 2 hours and the control group was without intervention. Data were analyzed using analysis of ANCOVA. The results showed that mindfulness intervention had a significant effect on self-blame (P = 0.001) and working memory (P = 0.001) in the experimental group (P <0.05).
In a general conclusion, it can be stated that mindfulness-based education can be used in therapeutic and psychological programs to increase working memory and reduce self-blame in adolescents.
Mr. Masih Jani, Mr. Ahmad Borjali, Mr. Faramarz Sohrabi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-2023)

Stress is an integral part of human life today, so most people have learned relatively adaptive ways to deal with it, these methods are usually enough to cope with the stresses of everyday life, but sometimes there are events that cause too much stress to cope with. This study aimed to evaluate the comparison of personality characteristics and autobiographical memory among individuals with Post-traumatic Growth and those suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Method of this study is causal-comparative. The study population included all of the patients who refer to hospitals of Isfahan after having a vehicle accident. For the screening phase post-traumatic stress disorder inventory (PTGI) and PTSD checklist (PCL) were used. 22 persons for the PTSD group and 20 persons for the PCL group were selected purposively. Both these groups answered the Autobiographical memory test (AMT) and the short form of the Five-factor model. The analysis illustrates there are meaningful differences between these PTSD and PTG groups in neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness subscales in addition to Autobiographical memory, but there were no meaningful differences between these two groups in agreeableness.
Mrs Fatemeh Ehsan Poor, Dr Fatemeh Ghaemi, , Dr Javid Peymani,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (9-2023)

The use of methamphetamine in the general population and university and high school students is more than 1%. Also, the proportion of people addicted to methamphetamine has increased among those who refer to drug addiction treatment centers in Iran, which causes many harms to its users; One of these damages is creating a disruption in resilience. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Electrical Stimulation (tDCS) therapy with acceptance and commitment based therapy on the resilience of men addicted to methamphetamine. The research method is practical in terms of purpose and semi-experimental in terms of data collection method. The statistical population of this research included the statistical population of the present study including all methamphetamine addicts in one area of Tehran city in 1401 who had referred to one of the addiction treatment centers. According to the research design, a sample size of 45 people was selected by purposive sampling. (2001) and electrical stimulation of the brain from the skull of this instrument was performed as a pre-test-post-test. Based on the findings of the current research, it was determined that transcranial direct stimulation (tDCS) electrical therapy was more effective on the resilience of men addicted to methamphetamine, the therapy based on acceptance and commitment was effective on the resilience of men addicted to methamphetamine, and the therapy based on Acceptance and commitment compared to direct transcranial stimulation electrical therapy has been more effective on the resilience of men addicted to methamphetamine.
Zeinab Javanmard, Tahame Hamvatan,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (1-2024)

The present study was conducted with the aim of the relationship between attitude towards delinquency and perceived stress and attachment styles of Tehran Azad University students. The present study is a cross-sectional study in terms of its practical purpose, in terms of time it is a quantitative study, and in terms of the research method, it is descriptive of the correlation type. The statistical population of the present study included all psychology students of Tehran Azad University in the number of 2400 people. 331 people were selected from the aforementioned statistical population based on the Morgan and Karjesi formula. The mentioned sample was selected by available sampling method. The results showed that perceived stress and anxious attachment have a positive relationship with negative attitude towards delinquency. Negative attitude towards delinquency has a positive relationship with secure and avoidant attachment style. Also, positive attitude towards delinquency did not show a significant relationship with any of the research variables.

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