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Saeideh Zahed, Fariborz Dortaj, Hasan Asadzadeh, Parvin Kadivar, Noorali Farokhi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2021)

Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. The main concern within this framework is to develop a proper instrument to measure cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this research was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Cognitive Load Questionnaire designed by Kelpsch, Schmitz and Seufert (2017). This questionnaire was administered to 206 seventh- and eighth-grade female students, in which they rated the amount of intrinsic, germane, and extraneous load of various learning tasks on a 7-point Likert scale. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were examined and confirmed through Cronbach's alpha coefficient and t-test in which the quality of individuals' answers in different tasks were compared together. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis was performed using LISREL 8.80, to investigate factor structure of the questionnaire. The results showed that the questionnaire has desirable reliability and validity to measure different types of cognitive load. The results of confirmatory factor analysis also revealed a three-factor structural model whose fit indices suggested a desirable fit with the data, thus corroborating the three-factor structure of the cognitive load questionnaire. Therefore, this questionnaire can be a proper measure to assess different types of cognitive load in seventh and eighth grade students.

Mr Moslem Daneshpayeh, Dr Fariborz Dortaj, Dr Kamran Sheivandi Cholicheh, Dr Ali Delavar, Dr Hasan Asadzadeh Dehrai,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (volume10, Issue 4 2023)

Spiritual intelligence represents a set of spiritual abilities, capacities, and resources, the use of which in daily life can increase a person's adaptability, and paying attention to it in students as a strength can lay the groundwork for a more successful and desirable professional future in them. The aim of the current research was the effectiveness of wisdom training in spiritual intelligence in students. This research was applied and quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and a control group. The statistical population included students of Allameh Tabataba'i University in the academic year 2021-2022, among whom 30 students were selected by convenience sampling method, and divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The data collection tool was King's (2008) Spiritual Intelligence Questionnaire (SISRI). The experimental group received 10 sessions of wisdom training. The data were analyzed using the analysis of the covariance test. The results showed that wisdom training was significantly effective in increasing spiritual intelligence, critical existential thinking, the dimension of transcendental consciousness, and the dimension of producing the personal meaning of students. But it did not have a significant effect on the development of students' state of consciousness. As a result, by teaching wisdom and increasing its amount in students, we can increase meaningfulness, transcendental awareness in the lives of students, as a result, increase their spiritual intelligence.

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