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Showing 15 results for Problem Solving

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Volume 3, Issue 3 (3-2016)
Abstract

Inquiring the cognitive Control, social problem solving and self-esteem between monolingual and bilingual students.

Abstract

This study aims to inquiry the cognitive control, social problem solving and self-esteem of the students of Kurdish-Persian language bilingual and ones of Persian language monolingual. research method was causal-comparative type .The sample consisted of 80 students (40 monolingual students, 40 bilingual students) who were selected by the mean of the multi-stage cluster sampling. To collect data from the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Grant & Berg (1948), Revised Social Problem Solving Inventory Dyzhryla (2002, Kooper Smith Self Esteem (1967) was used. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance and T-test for independent samples. The results showed that bilingual and monolingual students there are significant differences in terms of cognitive control and self-esteem. Bilingual performance was better than the monolingual performance. But unlike previous research in the field of social problem-solving, there was no significant difference.        According to the results we can say that because bilingual students are faced with two systems of rules of language and their knowledge of the language is more than monolingual students ,then they in terms of cognitive have superiority. And that each language has its own cultural burden ,and this cultural burden is the experience from wide range of information and support that has a positive effect on self-esteem .And in social problem-solving is probably the type of bilingualism, expertise and skills of peoples in a second language, the richness of the environment, the opportunity for two languages as well as methodologies  cause to strengthen or weaken the second language learning and had different effects.


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Volume 3, Issue 3 (3-2016)
Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the Relationship Between Negative Mental Imagery and Executive Functions in People with Social Anxiety Disorder. 300 students were randomly selected in Kharazmi University students and then click SPIN questionnaire and answer questions about mental imagery semi-structured interviews with 60 subjects were selected. 20 of whom had symptoms of social anxiety and negative images, 20 people with social anxiety have a lower specification and images were negative and 20 patients with social anxiety had lower specification and images were negative. Stroop test, word is marked with the letters, Tower of London test was conducted on three groups. But social anxiety group was weaker than normal group with in next time thinking of the Tower of London test and. Three Stroop reaction time, high-frequency words, the previous time thinking and movements showed no significant difference in the Tower of London. Modified negative mental imagery in the social anxiety disorder can be associated with better performance on the executive function of individuals with this disorder.


Hossein Zare, Azadeh Najafi, Ali Akbar Sharifi, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (3-2019)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation on the attention and problem solving of children with traumatic brain injury. The Method was A semi-experimental pre-test post-test study was performedwith a one month follow-up period. 30 children from 9 to 15 years old (12 girls and 18 boys) were selected by random sampling from all children with traumatic brain injury in the academic year of 2017-18 in Tehran, and divided into two groups of 15 subjects and control were distributed.To measure dependent variables, namely selective attention, sustained attention, and problem solving, Stroop software tests, continuous performance, and Tower of London have been used. The experimental group after the implementation of the cognitive empowerment (12 sessions 45 minutes) and dropping to 13 and the control group eventually decreased to 13 people. Data were analyzed by mixed analysis of variance (2×3) model with using SPSS-22 software.
The results of mixed analysis of variance (2×3) showed a significant difference between the means of namely selective attention, sustained attention, and problem solving in experimental and waiting- list control groups.
Moreover, the post-test and follow-up scores in the experimental group was not satistically different. So cognitive rehabilitation have significant effect on selective attention, sustained attention, and problem solving in children with traumatic brain injury and it can be used as an effective and helpful method to improve attention and problem solving of these patients.
Leila Shameli, Maryam Davodi, Shekoofe Mottaghi Dastenaee,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (11-2019)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on logical memory and problem solving skill in people with multiple sclerosis. The research design was a quasi-experimental type with pretest-posttest and control group. The statistical population included all the individuals with multiple sclerosis of Ahvaz in 2018. Thirty of the patients were selected through purposive sampling and randomly divided into experimental and control groups, each congaing 15 subjects.  They were then tested using the Wechsler Memory Scale –III and The Problem-Solving Inventory. Participants in the experimental group received ACT protocol in 6 sessions at 120-minute. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance and SPSS-21 software. The results showed the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy to improve logical memory and problem solving skills in the experimental group. Therefore, clinical MS specialists can use this treatment to enhance logical memory and problem solving skills in patients with MS.
Mrs Fateme Asghari, Mr Siamak Khademi, Mr Mansour Vesali,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2020)
Abstract

Researchers emphasise the effect of metacognition on learning and teaching. The purpose of this article was to investigate the metacognitive knowledge and skills of physics students at Farhangian University in mechanic's problem solving. This qualitative study is an interpretive phenomenology and the methods of think-aloud protocols, interviewing and observation in natural conditions have been used to collect data and evaluate the metacognitive knowledge and skills of students and instructors at Farhangian University. The sample of the current study were forty two girls in the first semester, who studied physics at the Nasibeh Campus of Farhangian University in Tehran. Metacognitive evaluations were also performed to solve problems in mechanics in the kinematic field. In this study, the samples included students who had successfully passed the university entrance exam in the previous six months. In addition, one day before the start of the research, they participated in the university's basic physics exam, therefore, they had the necessary preparation and knowledge to solve the problems. The study was conducted in three stages. In the first stage, two to three problems were solved by the students with the think-aloud protocols. To familiarize students with the think-aloud protocols, they practiced this method with the help of a researcher. In the second stage, the researcher interviewed six students who were more interested and cooperative. In the third stage, the behavior of all forty-two students was observed and recorded during the academic semester, while solving problems under normal conditions. The results showed that most of the students surveyed had moderate metacognitive knowledge and very poor metacognitive skills


Nahide Bagerpour, Ramin Habibi-Kaleybar1, Javad Mesrabadi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2020)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of training neuropsychological executive functions on metamemory, planning and problem solving in students with mathematics disorder. This research is semi-experimental and its design includes pre-test and post-test as well as a control group. The population of this research were female students with mathematics disorder from the third to sixth grade of primery school, who had been to the Isar Specialty Learning Problem Instruction Center in 2017-2018. Thirty of them were selected by available sampling and were divided into experimental and control groups. Initially, both groups were tested by Wechsler Intelligence Test and K-Mathematical Test. Both groups were assessed by pre-test and post-test using the Metamemory Questionnaire and the Tower of London Questionnaire. The experimental group received 10 sessions for 3 months, while the control group did not receive any training. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of metamemory, planning and problem solving. This means that training executive functions has been able to increase the amount of metamemory, planning and problem solving for students with mathematics disorder. The results of this study can be used in the education and treatment of students with mathematics disorder and executive functions should always be considered as a key factor.

Barzan Soleimani, Kamran Yazdanbakhsh, Khodamorad Momeni,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (10-2021)
Abstract

People with borderline personality disorder experience problems in a variety of cognitive areas, including information processing, decision making, planning, memory, and problem solving. The aim of the study was to modeling the intermediate role of metacognitive awareness on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and problem solving. The research was fundamental and in terms of implementation method was correlational. The statistical population included all individuals with borderline personality disorder who referred to psychological and psychiatric clinics in Kurdistan province in 1397-98. 300 patients with diagnosis of borderline personality disorder based on clinical interview and willing to participate in the study were selected. They answered the Autobiographical memory test, metacognition awareness questionnaire and social problem solving inventory. Data were analyzed using Amos software. Findings showed that overgeneral autobiographical memory has a direct effect on problem solving skills and metacognitive awareness with coefficients of 0.17 and 0.20, respectively. Also, the direct effect of metacognitive awareness on problem solving was 0.35. Overgeneral Autobiographical memory predicted 4% of the variance of metacognitive awareness, and Overgeneral autobiographical memory with metacognitive awareness predicted 17% of problem-solving changes. On the other hand, the indirect effect of Overgeneral autobiographical memory on problem-solving skills was 0.07, which shows that the indirect effect of Overgeneral autobiographical memory on problem-solving skills is significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that metacognitive awareness acts as a mediator as an observer, which increases the scores of problem-solving skills.

Samira Nasr Abadi, S. M. Hossein Mousavi Nasab, Ghasem Askari Zadeh, Mohsen Shahba,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (10-2021)
Abstract

Executive dysfunction is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with significant complications. Deficiency in problem-solving, emotion regulation, and attention is one of the most common phenomena after brain injury. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term intervention of dual executive function on problem-solving, emotion regulation, and selective attention in patients with traumatic brain injury. This quasi-experimental design used pre-test and post-test with a control group. Twenty subjects with brain injury were selected with the Purposive sampling method. They were randomly entered into two experimental and control groups (10 in the experimental group and 10 in the control group). After performing the pre-test, the experimental group received the short-term intervention and double executive function in 8 sessions of 90 minutes, while the control group did not receive any intervention. The assessment was performed in two stages of pre-test-post-test using a set of software tests of the Tower of London, Stroop and John and Gross (2003) Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The results showed a significant difference in the mean scores between the experimental group and the control group in all variables after the test. Therefore, it can be concluded that short-term intervention of dual executive function has a significant effect on improving attention, emotion regulation, and problem-solving in people with traumatic brain injury.

Zargham Mehrganfard Jirandeh, Rahim Badri Gargari, Shahrouz Nemati, Sharam Vahedi,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (1-2022)
Abstract

The aim of the current reaerch was to study the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation on mathematical word problem solving in students with specific learning disabilitiy with impairment in mathematic. The research design was quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test with a control group. The statistical population of the study included all male students with specefic learning disabilitiy with impairment in mathematic in Rasht who were selected by available sampling. In the same vein, cognitive rehabilitation intervention was carry out in 8 sessions for the experimental group and the Response to  intervention Key Math Scale, RAVEN Intelligence Test and Mathematical Verbal Problem Solving Test were used to collect the data in the pre- and post-test stages.  Univariate analysis of covariance revaled that cognitive rehabilitation increased the rate of mathematical word problem solving in students with specific learning disabilitiy with impairment in mathematic. To achieve evidence-based practices, it is recommended to develope and implement a cognitive rehabilitation program to improve the verbal problem solving of students with specific learning disabilitiy with mathematical impairment and other students with developmental disabilities.

Vahid Mirzaie, Seyed Mosa Tabatabaee, Shahrokh Makvand Hosseini,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (1-2022)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate The Effectiveness of Computer-based Cognitive Rehabilitation on Working Memory and Problem Solving of High School Students. Method: For this purpose, 30 high school students in Tehran were selected. These people were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups of 15 people in each group. The number and duration of each session in the experimental group were 16 sessions and each session was 45 minutes, respectively. The control group did not receive any intervention. Research instruments included the Wisconsin Card Classification Test. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and SPSS 26 software. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in both components of class and survival and the effect of computer rehabilitation intervention on the class component was 0.375, which is lower than average. And the volume of the effect of computer-based cognitive rehabilitation intervention on the survival component is equal to 0.546, which is higher than average. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, it can be said that computer-based cognitive rehabilitation intervention is effective on the Working Memory and Problem Solving of high school students.

Mis Seyedeh Zahra Mousavi, Dr Farideh Sadat Hoseini,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (5-2022)
Abstract

In recent years, research on increasing cognitive and psychological status through play has received much attention. For this purpose, there are two categories of game including interactive home game and cognitive game that the first run in the home environment and the latter is implemented as computer software to increase cognitive abilities. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive computer games and parent-child interactive games on problem solving and positive and negative affects in children. For this purpose, 40 10-year-old children in Shiraz were selected by available sampling method in 4 groups included Lumosity game (10 people), home game (10 people), combination of Lumosity and home game (10 people) and control group (10 people). Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance. Based on the significance of Pillai test, there is a difference between the groups in terms of two variables of problem solving and positive and negative affect. Binary comparisons of the groups showed that there was a significant difference between the Lumosity and control groups in terms of problem solving. Also, the combination group with the control group and home group, and the Lumosity group with the control group had a significant difference in terms of positive affect. Acording to the results of the present study, it is suggested that Lumosity game be used to increase problem-solving ability and Lumosity game and the combination of Lumosity and home game to increase pleasant feelings and positive affects in 10-year-olds. 

Miss Shilan Shokri, Dr Farnaz Farshbaf Manisefat, Dr Ali Khademi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (3-2023)
Abstract

Abstract
Cognitive and neuropsychological problems play a special role in the course, prognosis, and treatment of obesity. The present study was conducted with the aim of designing and validating the Cognitive rehabilitation program and its effect on cognitive control and Problem-solving in women with obesity. The present study was conducted in the form of an experimental design with a pretest-posttest with a control group and follow-up. Participants in this study included 40 female obese patients living in Urmia who were randomly assigned to two groups cognitive rehabilitation (n = 20) and control (n = 20). The experimental group received cognitive rehabilitation intervention in 16 sessions and the BRIEF-A, cognitive flexibility test, and London tower in the pre-test, post-test, and follow-up stages for both groups were used and the findings were analyzed using a mixed analysis of variance test. Took. Also, after completing the course, the control group received cognitive rehabilitation intervention. The results showed better performance of the experimental group in cognitive control variables (inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) and problem-solving sub-components in the post-test and follow-up stage than the control group. This means that the experimental group that received the cognitive rehabilitation intervention performed better in the proposed components in the post-test and follow-up phase. Taken from the findings, it can be concluded that cognitive rehabilitation intervention as an effective and efficient treatment option can have positive effects and significant cognitive-educational consequences for patients with obesity. Therefore, specialists, researchers, and therapists in this field can use this intervention as an effective treatment option to improve the cognitive functions and psychological neuropathy of obese and overweight patients and consequently improve the mental health and quality of life of these patients.


 
Miss Maryam Abbasi, Dr Seyed Mosa Tabatabaee,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (3-2023)
Abstract

Empathy is an inseparable part of social-emotional people. It plays a positive role in society, throughout people's lives, and recognizing that it forms the basis of empathy is essential. This research was conducted in order to investigate the mediating role of attention control in the relationship between problem solving and empathy. The research method of this study was descriptive-correlation. The participants of this research included 500 students of Zahedan city who were selected by cluster sampling method. In order to collect data, Hepner and Petersen's problem solving questionnaire, attention control scale, Jolliffe and Farrington's empathy questionnaire were used. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods such as Pearson correlation and structural equation modeling were used to analyzethe data using spss and Amos software. The findings showed that the direct path of problem solving to attention control (-0.458) is negative and significant. The direct path of controlling attention to cognitive emotional empathy (-0.141) is negative and significant. The direct path of problem solving to cognitive emotional empathy (-0.440) is negative and significant. Also, the mediating effect of problem solving on cognitive emotional empathy through attention control is equal to 0.072, which is positive and significant. Therefore, the research results show that it is important to pay attention to the mediating role of attention control in the relationship between problem solving and empathy, and it is necessary to pay attention to the limitations that may be caused by increasing attention control for problem solving and empathy. Theoretically, investigating the effects of increasing thesecognitive functions on empathy requires more investigation and research.
Zahra Tarazi, Molok Khademi Ashkezari, Mahnaz Akhavan Tafti,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (12-2023)
Abstract

Aim: The aim of this research was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of attributional retraining program, emotion regulation and cognitive-social problem solving on Improvement of social adjustment and reduction of academic burnout in Students with early learning disabilities in Tehran. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest, and follow-up.The participants consisted of 40 students with learning disability of 8 to 12 years old.They were selected through Simple random sampling and randomly divided into 3 experimental groups and a control group. attributional retraining, emotion regulation and social-cognitive problem solving training were presented in 8 sessions, each lasting 1 hours, in the 3 experimental groups. Brosu et al. academic burnout Questionnaire and Sinha and Sing Social Adjustment questionnaire were used in the pretest, posttest, and follow-up stages. The data were analyzed using MANCOVA, ANCOVA. Findings: The results showed that attributional retraining, emotion regulation and social-cognitive problem solving training caused a significant increase in social adjustment and a significant decrease in academic burnout. In addition the emotional regulation and cognitive-social problem solving programs were more effective with the same effect than the attributional retraining program in increasing social adjustment. Conclusions: the use of the present research results can be effective in the designing of preventive educational programs and improving educational achievements.

 
Dr. Marzie Hashemi, Mrs. Mansoure Gholami,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (1-2024)
Abstract

The research was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between thinking styles and decision-making styles with the mediation of problem solving among startup employees. The research was descriptive and correlational. The statistical population of the research included all employees in the field of startups in Tehran in 1401. 300 people were selected by available sampling method and responded to research tools including questionnaires of thinking style (Sternberg, 1994), decision making style (Scott and Bruce, 1995) and problem-solving skills (Heppner, 1988). Analysis of research data using descriptive statistics methods (prevalence, percentage, mean and standard deviation), Pearson correlation coefficient, multivariate regression and structural equation modeling and path analysis statistical method with SPSS-26 software and Amos is done. Based on the findings, the proposed model had a good fit in structural equations and causal relationships between the mentioned variables. In general, in the proposed model of the research, it was found that the decision-making style is related to the thinking style both directly and indirectly through the problem-solving skills of the startup employees (P<0.05). The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between problem solving skills and its dimensions with decision-making style (P<0.05) and between thinking style and its dimensions with decision-making style. The collected data are consistent with the desired structural model and have a good fit. Therefore, the relationship between thinking styles and decision-making styles is confirmed with the mediation of problem-solving skills in startup employees.
 

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