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Showing 12 results for Stress

Asoodeh Roozmehr, Alireza Moradi, Hadi Parhoon, Yazdan Naderi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (6-2014)

The objective of the current research is to compare the function of declarative memory among war veterans who are suffering from PTSD ,war veterans who are not suffering from PTSD and normal people without any war experience the research has also aimed at studying and comparing the influence of the modifying role of meta cognition on the function of declarative memory among the three groups of the study.60 people have been selected and placed in three groups: 20 war veterans suffering from PTSD , chosen by PTSD scales 20 veterans not suffering from PTSD and 20 normal people without any war experience. All three groups were evaluated by WatsonPTSD questionnaires, declarative memory memory interview and delayed recall story) and meta cognition questionnaire .The research hypotheses were tested by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The result have indicated that the function of declarative memory in the three groups without the control of meta cognition moderator is significant , in another word the declarative memory function in war veterans suffering from PTSD is different with the two other groups. It can be also deduced from the results of the research that the declarative memory function by the control of meta cognition modifying  role was not significant this time which indicates the modifying role of meta cognition in decreasing the declarative memory function in war veterans suffering from PTSD in comparison with the two other mentioned groups.

Omid Shokri, Mohammad Naghi Farahani, Reza Kormi Nouri, Alireza Moradi,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (10-2014)

This study examined the moderating effect of cultural and sex differences on the relationship between appraisal processes with academic stress among male and female Iranian and Swedish university students. On a sample consisting of 212 students [112 Iranian (male 32 and female 78) 100 Swedish (male 29 and female 71)] were administrated the primary and secondary appraisal processes and Academic Stress Questionnaire. The results of multiple regression model showed significant positive relationship between primary appraisal and academic stress among Iranian students and nonsignificant positive relationship between primary appraisal and academic stress among Swedish students. Results also indicated that there was a significant negative correlation between secondary appraisal and academic stress among Iranian and Swedish students. Results also showed that there was a nonsignificant positive relationship between primary appraisal and academic stress and a significant negative relationship between secondary appraisal and academic stress among both sexes. Therefore, the relationship between primary and secondary appraisals and academic stress by sex was not moderated. In sum, these findings emphasize that for the purpose of prediction of academic stress the functional properties of primary appraisal were dissimilar and the functional properties of secondary appraisal were similar in two cultural contexts and the functional properties primary and secondary appraisals were similar in tow sex groups.

Sohrab Amiri, Amir Ghasemi Navvab, Mohammad H. Abdollahi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (2-2015)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the amount of performance in working memory, and also comparing the dimensions of behavioral activation system (BAS) and behavioral inhibition system (BIS) in different levels of stress. For this purpose, first, 560 persons of high school adolescent students (including boys and girls) of Hamadan's schools were selected through a multistage cluster sampling. After the initial data analysis, 87 of them, based on final score distribution (Z Standard) were chosen. Finally, in order to test the hypothesis of this study, participants were have studied to measure working memory and behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation systems. The collected data were analyzed using a Multivariate analysis of variance, ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results showed that there is no significant interaction between gender and stress variables considering the working memory and behavioral inhibition and activation system. On the other hand, results showed that high stress levels can lead to a decline in working memory function and participants with high levels of stress were also at higher level in terms of activity of behavioral activation system (BAS) and behavioral inhibition system (BIS).

Zobair Samimi, Somayeh Ramesh, Javad Afzoon, Sayed Ali Kazemi Rezaei,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2017)

The failures of memory function in post-traumatic stress disorder and its relationship with severity of symptoms need to take new approaches to improve the memory performance in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the Effectiveness of emotional working memory Training on improvement memory in adolescents with Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). For this purpose, 4 adolescents (M: 2 F: 2) were selected available sampling by using 2 instruments (SCID-I) & (IES-R) The selected people– one by one were under emotional working memory training during 20 sessions. All people were assessed during three stages (pre-training, post- training and 2 month follow up) by children' Wechsler Digit Span Test (direct and reverse). Data were analyzed using the indices for trend changes, slope and the visual inspection of the charts; recovery percent index and effect size were used to determine the clinical significance. The results showed that emotional working memory training lead to increase in ability of participants in memory from pretest to follow up who suffering from Post- Traumatic Stress Disorders. Regarding the current study, it can be said that emotional working memory training is an appropriate choice for increase in memory in adolescents suffering from Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder

Dr Hadi Keramati, Dr Javad Vefori,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2017)

The present research aims to examine the effect of teaching studying methods of reading and comprehension, note-taking and writing, and exam techniques and stress management with emphasis on cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies on academic achievement and motivation achievement among Iranian students with residency in Tajikistan. For this purpose, using empirical method and multi-group pre-test and post-test design, 80 students were considered in four groups(3 experimental groups and 1 control group). Response was given to Hermans achievement motivation questionnaire by the students at four groups and their Grade Point Average for previous year was registered, and the individuals in the experimental groups were trained during 10 sessions. After intervention, Hermans achievement motivation questionnaire was refilled by the students and their new Grade Point Average was registered. Ultimately, the research data were analyzed via Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results of statistical analyses indicated that training studying techniques of reading and comprehension, note-taking and writing, and exam techniques and stress management affect achievement motivation and academic achievement.

Dr Seyed Saeid Pournaghash Tehrani, Miss Zahra Ghalandarzadeh, Dr Hojjatollah Farahani, Dr Seyed Mehdi Saberi, Dr Masumeh Pashaeii Bahram,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (12-2018)

Domestic violence could cause different types of physical and mental consequences for women. This may threaten safety of the family. Women are more prone to be the victims of violence particularly partners’ one. One of the important consequences of violence is cognitive dysfunctioning. Domestic violence could be considered as an environmental stressor factor which in turn could affect cognitive functions. Surviving from the influence of a domestic violence is in direct relation with the cognitive capabilities of abused women. Therefore, investigation on the effect of domestic violence on cognitive functioning of women suffering from domestic violence is an important issue. The effect of violence on cognitive functions may occur throughout other psychological variables. That is why in the current study, the mediating role of self-regulation and psychological Distress relating domestic violence and cognitive functions is investigated.
The current study is a fundamental research. Considering that, the study of the relationship between the interested variables has been conducted on a limited number of abused women, it is a descriptive-correlative type of research. The relationship between the parameters is analyzed based on the research objectives. The subject community is abused women referred to different branches of Tehran Forensic Medicine Center in 2017-2018. 200 abused women are asked to participate in this study. They are selected on a purposive sampling method based on entry-exit criteria and after seeking their acceptances. Miller & Brown (1999) Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSRQ), DASS-21 Questionnaire (1995), Pour Naghash Tehrani (2004) Domestic Violence Questionnaire and MONTREAL cognitive assessment scale (2005) were utilized as the instruments of research variables.
Results are analyzed by means of SPSS and LISREL software. The conceptual model connecting domestic violence to the cognitive functioning throughout the above mentioned mediating parameters are examined. The outcomes supported a suitable fitness for the proposed model, since the statistical indicators such as RMSEA, GFI, MFI, AGFI … showed satisfactory values.
Present study shows that the experience of domestic violence creates significant cognitive dysfunctioning through the mediating factors such as loss of self-regulation capability and Psychological Distress. By means of these findings, families and social organizations such and women’s shelter and support centers can offer suitable educational programs and treatment to prevent the continuation of the violence.  
Hashem Jebraeili, Tannaz Seydi, Rasool Karimi,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (10-2020)

Given the wide prevalence of procrastination and delaying tasks and the need to identify factors affecting this problem, present study aimed to investigate the mediating role of anticipated regret and consideration of future consequences in the relationship between impulsive choice and emotional distress with procrastination. In an analytical cross-sectional study, 400 students were selected through available sampling from Kermanshah universities and they were assessed employing impulsivity (Cyders et al., 2014), depression, anxiety and stress (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995), monetary choice (Kirby & Marakovic, 1996), regret-based decision making (Nygren & White, 2002), consideration of future consequences (Strathman et al., 1994), and pure procrastination (Steel, 2010) questionnaires. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation test and path analysis using SPSS and Mplus software. The findings showed that the present model has an excellent fit with data (RMSEA=0.001, CFI=1, TLI=1). Urgency (β=0.08, P<0.01), lack of perseverance (β=-0.07, P<0.01), anxiety (β=0.06, P<0.01), and delay discounting (β=-0.04, P<0.01) had significant effect on procrastination through anticipated regret and lack of premeditation had significant effect on procrastination through both anticipated regret (β=-0.07, P<0.01) and consideration of future consequences (β=0.03, P<0.05).It could be said that anticipated regret and consideration of future consequences play a mediating role in the relationship between impulsive choice and emotional distress with procrastination and we can help to reduce procrastination in distressed and impulsive individuals by formulating interventions that target these variables.

Sepideh Fallahiyeh, Maryam Fatehizade, Ahmad Abedi, Mohamad Masoud Dayarian,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (10-2020)

It is very stressful to constantly struggle to meet the expectations of others or those of one’s self, and it affects performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intervention based on Dweck’s mind set on academic expectations stress among gifted and talented school students. This was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The statistical population consisted of female students in the eighth grade of schools for gifted and talented students in Isfahan selected by a multi-stage random sampling method. Thirty students were selected by the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI) and were randomly assigned into a control group (n = 15) and an experimental group (n = 15). The experimental group received 8 sessions of 50 minutes as intervention. Data were analysed using MANCOVA in SPSS-23. There was a significant difference between experimental and control groups in terms of the expectations of self, expectations of others, and the total scale. According to the effectiveness of intervention based on Dweck’s mind set in the case of improving the academic expectations stress in gifted students, it could be suggested that this intervention would be useful for reducing stress among gifted students.

Aliakbar Sharifi, Naeimeh Moheb, Reza Abdi, Sholeh Livarjani,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (10-2020)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy on the reduction of brain-behavioral systems Sensitveness and experimental avoidance of veterans with PTSD. The current study is a semi-experimental one with pretest-posttest design with control group, The statistical population of this study included all Veterans in Marand in the year of 2019, among which 30 were selected as veterans with PTSD who referred to pouyameher Counseling and Psychological Services Center. Were selected through purposive sampling method and randomaly assigned to two groups of experimental and control. The data were collected using a posttrumatic stress disorder checklist (military version), Behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation system scales (BIS/BAS) and acceptance and action questionnaire-II (AAQ). Then, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy were performed for 12 sessions (90 minutes in per session) each week for the experimental group. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20 using multiple covariance analysis. After controlling the effects of pretest, the mean scores of behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation system and experiential avoidance were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (p<0.001). Training trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy education can be effective reduces brain-behavioral systems and experiential avoidance of veterans with PTSD. Therefore, the design and implementation of intervention based on this treatments can be useful in educating and promoting mental health in veterans with PTSD.

Mr. Masih Jani, Mr. Ahmad Borjali, Mr. Faramarz Sohrabi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-2023)

Stress is an integral part of human life today, so most people have learned relatively adaptive ways to deal with it, these methods are usually enough to cope with the stresses of everyday life, but sometimes there are events that cause too much stress to cope with. This study aimed to evaluate the comparison of personality characteristics and autobiographical memory among individuals with Post-traumatic Growth and those suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Method of this study is causal-comparative. The study population included all of the patients who refer to hospitals of Isfahan after having a vehicle accident. For the screening phase post-traumatic stress disorder inventory (PTGI) and PTSD checklist (PCL) were used. 22 persons for the PTSD group and 20 persons for the PCL group were selected purposively. Both these groups answered the Autobiographical memory test (AMT) and the short form of the Five-factor model. The analysis illustrates there are meaningful differences between these PTSD and PTG groups in neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness subscales in addition to Autobiographical memory, but there were no meaningful differences between these two groups in agreeableness.
Narges Hafezi, Houshang Garavand,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (9-2023)

This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological flexibility in the relationship between maladaptive schemas and psychological distress. The research design employed in this study was descriptive-correlational, utilizing structural equation modeling. The population of this study included all undergraduate students of Poldokhtar Higher Education Center during 2020-2021. The size of the statistical sample according to Klein's rule of thumb equals 230 people, which was done by an available sampling method and an online questionnaire. The Young Schema Questionnaire, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory by Dennis and Vanderwal, and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale were used to collect the data. The data was analyzed using structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping was employed to examine the mediating role of variables. The results indicated that maladaptive schemas have a direct significant effect on psychological distress (P < 0.01) and an indirect effect through psychological flexibility (P < 0.01). Based on the results, the research model demonstrated a good fit. By reducing maladaptive schemas, students can enhance their psychological flexibility, which may lead to overcoming academic issues and reducing psychological distress.

Zeinab Javanmard, Tahame Hamvatan,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (1-2024)

The present study was conducted with the aim of the relationship between attitude towards delinquency and perceived stress and attachment styles of Tehran Azad University students. The present study is a cross-sectional study in terms of its practical purpose, in terms of time it is a quantitative study, and in terms of the research method, it is descriptive of the correlation type. The statistical population of the present study included all psychology students of Tehran Azad University in the number of 2400 people. 331 people were selected from the aforementioned statistical population based on the Morgan and Karjesi formula. The mentioned sample was selected by available sampling method. The results showed that perceived stress and anxious attachment have a positive relationship with negative attitude towards delinquency. Negative attitude towards delinquency has a positive relationship with secure and avoidant attachment style. Also, positive attitude towards delinquency did not show a significant relationship with any of the research variables.

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