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Dr Mohammad Bager Beheshti, Fakhri Sadat Mohseni Zonuzi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2010)
Abstract

In the late 1990s and early 21 century there has been a very big rise in the price of housing in most countries including the United States and Japan. The same trend occurred in Iran in the years after the Iran-Iraq war and has continued up to the present. Housing in Iran has always had a mutual relationship with economic fluctuations including monetary policies. Thus the impact of housing on Iran’s economy is significant. In this applied- analytical research, the aim is to investigate the monetary transmission mechanism in the housing market in Iran during the years 1988-2006 by using a SVAR eight- variable model and seasonal data. The research found that the expansionary-monetary shock policy, which is the result of liquidity shock, has had a significant impact on housing prices lasting for 3 years at a time. Meanwhile, the price of housing explains about 20 per cent of the GDP changes in the study period.
,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2011)
Abstract

In this article the relationship between market return and volatility is examined by applying out- of- sample methodology and ARCH (M) class models in the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) and international stock exchanges. The results are inconsistent with portfolio theory implications in NASDAQ, ISE and TSE. However I found only negative relationship between unexpected volatility and monthly returns in most of international exchanges. I didn’t also find any significant relationship between forecasted volatility and monthly returns. The results contradict the asset pricing theories which explain a positive relationship between volatility and return. Although there are low coefficients of determination for all regressions, asymmetric volatility of return hypothesis explains this relationship in the sense that a decrease in stock price (negative return) increases the financial leverage of companies leading to more risky stocks and an eventually increasing volatility.
Amir Reza Soori, Dr Ahmad Tashkini, Mohammad Reza Saadat,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2011)
Abstract

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of merger, concentration and credit risk on the efficiency of Iranian Banking industry. To measure the efficiency of Iranian banking system, we have used the data of commercial & specialized bank's balance sheets during 2001-2007, and a parametric approach to estimate two empirical models. To estimate efficiency measures and determining main factors affecting the measures, we have used a Logarithmic - Linear form of a random Translog cost function. The results of the first estimated efficiency model show that the average efficiency measure of banking system in Iran is 54% and that the merger of the more inefficient banks within the efficient bank will cause the average efficiency measure rise to 70% The results of the second model - assessing the effecting factors on efficiency- show that the efficiency of banks has an inverse relationship with the concentration (competition in banking industry), and a direct relationship with the IT index (e-banking activity) and the facilities to assets and capital to assets ratios (as the indices of the credit risk).
Dr Leila Torki, Dr Seyed Komail Tayebi, Sajjad Sharifi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2011)
Abstract

The theoretical literature of economic growth (endogenous and exogenous growth model) and empirical evidence in developed and developing countries show that without financial reform, sustainable development is impossible. The positive effects of financial sector development on economic growth and developments in the international financial sector make a more important issue. Some economists believe that financial reforms through increasing the level of savings and investment can provide economic growth. Also, some economists believe that financial reform by international capital mobility and technology transfer can cause income convergence among countries. This study investigates the theoretical foundations of financial development, financial system and its functions, and also the analysis of the effect of financial reform on economic growth and creating income convergence among selected Islamic countries during 2008-1979. Estimation results show that financial reform through liquidity has direct and significant impact on economic growth. The crossover effect of economic growth and liquidity has direct and statistically significant effect on income convergence.
Dr Asad-Ollah Farzinvash, Hassani Heydar,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2011)
Abstract

Banks play an important role in many modern economies. The main functioning of banks is to reduce the information problems between lenders and borrowers. The experiences show that banks with a powerful balance-sheet have a better ability to isolate their lending activities from monetary shocks. So, the balance-sheet items of commercial banks play an important role in their sensitivity to the monetary downturns. This paper has two distinguishing features compared to other papers. First, we examined the indirect effects of monetary policy on bank lending through the balance-sheet items of the Iranian banks. Second, we have used two separate samples private and public banks, because their organizational systems have significant differences. Our hypothesis is that the monetary policy can indirectly affect the public and private banks’ lending through their balance-sheet items. Our results show that the monetary policy has no direct but indirect effects on bank lending in Iran.
Seyed Fakhroddin Fakhrehoseini,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2011)
Abstract

A Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) Model is developed to study monetary business cycles impacts of volatilities of oil revenue and money supply on macroeconomic variables in Iran. The results show that 0.15 percent deviation from the trend of steady state inflation is explained by changes in oil revenue when it is accompanied by change in money aggregates. However, if such changes in oil revenues are not financed by the central bank, inflation deviates only by 0.1 percent. The results reemphasize the fact that money is neutral in a non-sticky price framework and only affect output and employment by 0.05 and -0.01 percent respectively.
Dr. Hosein Sharifi-Renani, Dr. Sara Ghobadi, Farzaneh Amrollahi, Naghmeh Honarvar,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (6-2011)
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to consider the effects of monetary policy on production and prices through asset price channel (the housing price index) in Iran during 1368Q1 to 1387Q4. By Vector Error Correction (VEC) Model, the effect of monetary policy has been considered through this channel. In general, the results show that the debt of banks to the central bank as instruments of monetary policy through the housing price index, at least in the short run could increase the production level and decreases prices. Thus central bank with given facilities to banks can directly and through the housing price index strengthen production level and control prices in the short run. Also we found that shock of the required reserve ratio in general, directly affects production levels and don’t have any effect on production level and prices through the housing price index. Therefore, in using of these tool as instruments of monetary policy, the housing price index channel in monetary transmission policy, has a little effect and only on the production.
Dr Mohamad Ali Motafakkerazad, Aidin Ghafarnejad Mehraban, ,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (9-2011)
Abstract

Monetary shocks are one of the control tools in economic systems. A true perception of these shocks on economic systems can lead us to a suitable policy. In this paper, the impact of monetary shocks on output in Iran has been modeled and investigated using artificial neural networks. We investigated positive and negative shocks separately and confirmed asymmetric effect of these shocks. In addition, nonlinear natures of output changes considering magnitude of shocks were obtained. Results show that optimal condition of monetary shocks to gain maximum output growth can be reached using artificial neural network. In other words, symmetric or asymmetric behavior of monetary shocks depends on economic situation in considered year or period. In addition to, investigation of monetary shocks effect (positive or negative impact) on the production changes, depending on the shock value and this shocks do not have an only particular Effect on production changes. Its can be different.
Dr Jahangarde, Sara Ali Asgari,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (9-2011)
Abstract

Macroeconomic performance has improved in many countries in the world in the last fifteen years or so. Much of the literature has concentrated on how central bank independence, inflation targeting regimes, and currency :::union:::s have contributed to improving the effectiveness of monetary policy and hence macroeconomic performance. Since the financial system is a key component of the monetary transmission mechanism, we study how a country’s financial development affects monetary policy efficiency in 28 developed and developing countries within 1995-2006. Specifically, our objective is to derive monetary policy efficiency measures (PEMs) - derivative from Krause and Rioja- for 28 Developed and developing countries and analyze the impact that the size and depth of the banking sector and the capital sector have on policy performance. In our empirical analysis we use three financial development measures: private credit, liquid liabilities, and a financial aggregate index that comprises banking and stock market measures. The Results of model estimation with generalized method of moments (GMM) technique, shows that financial development with mentioned indicators has a positive and significant effect on monetary policy efficiency. Also supervision in central bank independency and inflation targeting regimes -as control variables- has positive and significant effect on monetary policy efficiency. This result doesn’t make a difference whether the country is developed or developing and in the both of them more developed financial markets, controlling the central bank independency and applying inflation targeting regimes, significantly help to achieve a more efficient monetary policy.
- Mohammad Mehdi Mojahedi Moakhar, Dr Rahim Dallali Esfahani, Dr Saeid Samadi, Dr Rasoul Bakhshi Dastjerdi,
Volume 2, Issue 5 (12-2011)
Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the source of fractional reserve banking and to review the literature on bank credit. Evaluating the operational procedure of this banking model demonstrates a new concept of credit money shaping aspect and its affect on the practical economy. The difference in due dates between depositing and receiving loan that causes Ex-nihio money to exist, the effect of this money on prices along with economic instability are among the issues that have occupied the critic scholar's minds in fractional reserve banking realm. In this paper, the effects of the fractional reserve banking model on the consumption behavior are analyzed. Also, the view points of the critics of this banking model are addressed. In this regard, an inter-generational consumption behavior model based on Maurice Allais's perspectives has developed. Results show that optimizing the existing model is the true test of the consumption instability in a permanent state in the fractional reserve banking realm. Also, according to the results there exits the possibility of instable capital repletion under certain circumstances.
Hassan Heydari,
Volume 2, Issue 6 (3-2012)
Abstract

  In this paper, a small scale Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregressive (FAVAR) Model is utilized to analyze the effects of monetary shocks on price level and economic activities in the Iranian housing sector. To analyze the "price level", four price indices of the housing sector were used and also six indices to estimate the "economic activities" in this sector were determined. The results show that shocks from liquidity and high powered money will have wave-like effects on the housing sector in Iran. The waves have an approximate duration of 5 years which is confirmed by observations of the housing sector in Iran. Also the results show that the effects of the liquidity shocks have more durable effects on the sector in comparison with the high powered money shocks.


Dr Akbar Komijani, Hossein Tavakoliyanh,
Volume 2, Issue 6 (3-2012)
Abstract

According to Taylor (1993) rule, the monetary authority responds to deviations of output and of inflation from their targets through nominal interest rate fluctuations regarded as policy instrument. Another specification that has received considerable attention is that policymakers may have asymmetric preferences with regard to their objectives during recessions and expansions. Since according to Law for Usury (Interest) Free Banking of Iran, the objective of the central bank is not the control of interest rate, instead it is money growth rate which is used as an instrument, in this study we introduce a money growth rate reaction function and we use it to test the asymmetry in central bank behavior during recessions and expansions. The estimation results of a Markov Switching model for the period 1367:1 to 1387:2 show that the central bank sensitivity toward output is more during the recessions while its sensitivity toward inflation is more during the expansions.
Rahim Dallali Esfahani, Said Samadi, Mohammad Mahdi Mojahedi, Amir Jabbari, Reza Samadi Boroujeni,
Volume 2, Issue 7 (6-2012)
Abstract

    This paper examines the effects of different variables on inflation in the monetary economics using endogenous growth models. So, different aspects of inflation formation were analyzed based on micro-foundations. We investigated the role of imported inflation, fiat money, expectations, monetary base and capital accumulation on inflation using an endogenous growth model. An ARDL approach was utilized to estimate the model for Iranian economy during 1979 -2008. The estimation results show that imported inflation affects the inflation through the exchange rate channel. Also, expectations, capital return and monetary base play an outstanding role in Iranian economy.

 


Seyed Aziz Arman, Masumeh Mirabizadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 8 (9-2012)
Abstract

  The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of inflation on real investment in Iran. After briefly reviewing the investment theories and their situation in Iran, we consider the determinants of investment by using annual data (1958-2009).

  Results of the Augmented Dickey- Fuller (ADF) test indicate that all of the variables appearing in model are I(1). So, the results of the threshold regression model indicate that real GDP, the trade openness index and inflation rate can influence investment.

Results also show that the effect of inflation on investment follows an asymmetric adjustment process. The threshold level for the rate of inflation has been estimated 11.9 percent. If the annual rate of inflation exceeds this threshold level, it will have a negative impact on investment. But, if inflation remains below this level, not only the negative effect fades away but also rising prices can boost investment.


Parviz Mohammadzadeh, Alireza Jalili Marand,
Volume 2, Issue 8 (9-2012)
Abstract

There are a lot of techniques and methods for prediction of bankruptcy among them “Statistical methods” or econometrics techniques are more popular. As dependent variable in our study is qualitative it is convenient to use qualitative discrete models. Mixed Logit model is one of the powerful and flexible techniques of discrete choices that allow the coefficients to be random with distribution function. Explanatory variables are financial ratios which derived from Zmijewski’s model. The sample data are from Tehran Stock Exchange’s Brokerage Companies during 2001-2008. We selected two random samples, one for estimation and another for prediction power test. Results show that the degree of successfulness of the model is over 90 percent.
Esmaeil Naderi, Dr Hossein Abbasi-Nejad,
Volume 2, Issue 8 (9-2012)
Abstract

This study investigates predictability, chaos analysis, wavelet decomposition and the performance of neural network models in forecasting the return series of the Tehran Stock Exchange Index (TEDPIX). For this purpose, the daily data from April 24, 2009 to May 3, 2012 is used. Results show that TEDPIX series is chaotic and predictable with nonlinear effect. Also, according to obtained inverse of the largest lyapunov exponent, we are able to predict the future values of the series up to 31 days. Besides, our findings suggest that multi-layer feed forward neural network model and fuzzy model based on decomposed data, are of superior performances in predicting the return series. It is worth mentioning that, among these models, MFNN reveals the best performance.


Hossein Tavakolian, Akbar Komijani,
Volume 2, Issue 8 (9-2012)
Abstract

  It is more likely that the monetary policy in Iran is discretionary and not based on a rule or a target. Besides, what is clear is that there have been explicit targets for inflation and economic growth in all five-year development plans (except the fifth plan). However, the question is that do policy makers observe the targets of development plans? Using an adjusted New Keynesian DSGE model for Iran, in this study we investigate the monetary policy under fiscal dominance and implicit inflation targeting of Iran. The results show that in most plans monetary authorities do not observe the explicit targets of five-year plans. The estimated monetary reaction function is only able to explain the period 2001-2011. The other result is that implementation delays of public projects have considerable effects on output and private consumption.


Dr Mehdi Sadeghi Shahdani, Dr Kazem Chavoshi, Hossein Mohseni,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (12-2012)
Abstract

  In recent years, financial economists have increasingly recognized the interaction between market structure and capital structure or financial decisions of the firms.

  This research analyzes the relationship between market structure (power) and the capital structure (leverage ratio) of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) based on static and dynamic approach. In this research we study a balanced panel dataset of 101 firm-year observations from 2006 to2010 and test significant relationship for testing hypothesis.

  First we use pooled regression to determinant the relationship between capital structure, market structure (Tobin's Q) and five control variables including profitability, size, collateral value of assets, growth rate of assets and uniqueness of assets. After employing chow and hausman test, we selected fixed effect panel data model. Also we employed GMM method to have more efficient result and also to cope with the unobservable firm-specific characteristics and endogeneity problems.

  Our results suggest that the relationship between leverage and market structure is non-linear (cubic) due to the complex interaction of market conditions, agency problems and bankruptcy costs. The study finds a negative relationship between capital structure and profitability and also positive relation between capital structure and the size. So, profitable companies tend to use internal financing such as retained earnings and issuing new shares instead of debt financing. Also big companies prefer to use more leverage due to desirable conditions for getting loans. Our evidence shows that Iranian listed companies are generally more subject to agency cost theory (limited liability effect) and tax shield theory. Finally, the system-GMM results reveal that managers of Iranian firms tend to adjust dynamically their leverage ratios over time.

 


Minoo Nazifi Naeini, Dr Shahram Fatahi, Dr Saeed Samadi,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (12-2012)
Abstract

  In this study we compare a set of Markov Regime-Switching GARCH models in terms of their ability to forecast the Tehran stock market volatility at different time intervals. SW-GARCH models have been used to avoid the excessive persistence that usually found in GARCH models. In SW-GARCH models all parameters are allowed to switch between a low or high volatility regimes. Both Gaussian and fat-tailed conditional distributions are assumed for the residuals, and the degrees of freedom can also be state-dependent to capture possible time-varying kurtosis. Using stationary bootstrap and re-sampling, the forecasting performances of the competing models are evaluated by statistical loss functions. The empirical analysis demonstrates that SW-GARCH models outperform all standard GARCH models in forecasting volatility. Also, the SW-GARCH model with the t distribution for errors has the best performance in fitting a model and estimation.


Dr Hasan Hosseini Nasab, Hasan Rasay,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (12-2012)
Abstract

  In this paper a new model for optimal investment in advanced manufacturing machines is proposed, using fuzzy linear programming. In the first step decision-makers determine the strategic objectives of the company and their minimum acceptable achievement levels, using fuzzy numbers. Thereafter, feasible alternatives and their degree of influence to the achievement of each objective are concluded in the form of linguistic variables. To construct the model, the degree of influence of each alternative in the achievement of the objectives are considered as technological coefficients, and the minimum level of acceptance of objectives are considered as constraints (right hand side variables). Furthermore, the mutually exclusive alternatives, the interaction between machines and the constraint of limited investment of budget are included in the model. The aim of the model is to determine the number of machines that needs to be purchased in order to maximize the present value of investment. The calculation of net present value is executed based on discount cash flow, inflation rate, interest rate, revenue and costs of each machine on a fuzzy environment. Finally by presenting an empirical illustration, the performance of this model is clarified.



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