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Zohre Abareshi, Karineh Tahmasian, Mohamad Ali Mazaheri, Leili Panaghi,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (11-2009)

One of the most effective factors on child psychosocial development is the relationship between mother and child which is affected by parental self-efficacy. The aim of study was to investigate whether Psychosocial Child Development training program can increase positive mother-child relationship and parental self-efficacy. The method of this study was semi-trail with control group. primary samples were 43 mothers of children under three that were selected voluntarily from Imam reza, Qa’em and Razavi Kindergartens in Mashhad, Iran.and then they were voluntarily  put in the experimental and control group. In the posttest stage, the samples of the study decreased to 30 subjects. Mothers filled out child-parent relationship and parental self-efficacy questionnaires in pretest, posttest and follow-up stages. Then the Data was analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance. Results showed that Intervention increased parental self-efficacy significantly, but Positive mother-child relationship didn’t increase. In the domains of relationship, dependency increased but other domains such as conflict and closeness didn’t increase significantly. It seems that in spite of increasing of knowledge and parental self-efficacy, mother-child relationship was affected by other factors such as shortage of time for affecting, insufficient exercises, small sample and other uncontrolled factors.
Mahsa Jabbari, , Leili Panaghi, Mohammad Ali Mazaheri Mazaheri,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (volume13, Issue 2 2019)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Iranian experts and adolescents define the 24 character strengths. With this aim in mind, through on purpose method of sampling, semi-structured interviews about definitions of the 24 character strengths were conducted with ten specialists (including psychologists, counselors, and teachers). Furthermore, the opinions of two gender-segregated groups of nine grade students about character strengths’ definitions were discussed in focus groups for girls (N= 7) and for boys (N= 6). Students were selected based on their availability at the time of research and their willingness to take part in discussion groups. Data were analyzed using content analysis and directive approach. Results showed that there was conformity with Peterson and Seligman’s (2004) definitions and Iranian experts-adolescents’ definitions in twelve character strengths and also there were some differences in definitions of other character strengths (e.g., bravery, zest, and honesty). These similarities and differences were discussed. Based on the findings of this research, it can be claimed that there is almost compliance between definitions of the 24 character strengths in Iranian society and the definitions of the character strengths and virtues classification and this classification can be used in research related to this topic.

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