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Showing 56 results for Anxiety

Mohammad Hossein Abdollahi, Gholamreza Hosseinpour, Asadollah Rajab, Valiolah Ramezani,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (3-2009)

This study investigated attention bias, depression and anxiety in adolescents with Diabetes type 1.Population of the study included all 13 to 20 years old adolescents of the Iranian Diabetics Association. Of these diabetics, 25 subjects were selected as samples of the study and a group of 25 non-diabetic adolescents also participated in the study as the control group. The measurement tools were modified Stroop colour naming task, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. When it came to analyzing the data, multivariate analysis of variance was used. The results indicated that the diabetic group had low time reaction in diabetes related words, neutral words, positive and negative words than the  control group furthermore, depression and anxiety scores of the selected diabetics were higher than control group
Jafar Hasani, Hajar Andarkhor, Yaser Tedadi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (3-2009)

Development of the emotional intelligence construct in psychological literature has opened a new array of research in this field .The results of the previously conducted research showed that the emotional intelligence was correlated with several psychosocial factors, and it played a major role in interpersonal problems. The goal of the present study was investigation of the relationship between the emotional intelligence and interpersonal problems. To do so, 140 students of Semnan University were selected through random cluster sampling. Their emotional intelligence and interpersonal problems were assessed by The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory and Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Barkham, Hardy & Startup, 1994) respectively. The results showed that there is a negative and significant relationship between most of the emotional intelligence components and interpersonal problems. Furthermore, different emotional intelligence components predicted some aspects of interpersonal problems. In sum, the results indicated that the emotional intelligence led to the increase   of mental health and decrease of interpersonal problems and thus improved the quality of social and interpersonal relationships.
Sheyda Dibaei, Masood Janbozorghi, Masood Arefnazar,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (5-2009)

This study examined the role of emotional ambivalence and control of mothersin anxiety of children and adolescents with cancer. The population of this study was 8 to 17 years old children and adolescents with cancer under active treatment who were in pediatric hospital (inpatient or outpatient) in Tehran. The sample is 102 children and adolescents with cancer (56 boys and 46 girls) and their mothers. Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ) and Ambivalence over Emotional Expression (AEQ) for mothers and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) for sick children were used. Data analyses revealed that children whose mothers were high in emotional ambivalence reported higher level of anxiety. But significant relation between emotional control of mothers and children’s anxiety were not found. Also, result of hierarchical regression analysis showed that mother’s emotional ambivalence and control do not account any changes in children’s anxiety. However, child’s gender modifies the relationship between mother’s emotional ambivalence and control. It seems child’s sex in the relationship between mother’s emotional ambivalence and control, and child’s anxiety, may contribute to perceived social support which can lead type of adjustment with cancer and high or low anxiety
Batool Ahadi, Mohammad Narimani,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (2-2010)

The aim of this study was to explain obsessive-compulsive symptoms according to disgust, anxiety and depression in a non-clinical sample. one hundred students (50 girls, 50 boys) were included in this study. All participants were asked to complete Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), Disgust Scale (DS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Analysis of the data involved both descriptive and inferential statistics including means, standard deviations, Pearson' correlation coefficients and regression analyses. The results revealed that disgust, anxiety and depression were significantly positively correlated with total obsessive-compulsive scores in both males and females. The results of regression analysis showed checking and doubt symptoms were best predicted by state-trait anxiety, while washing were best predicted by disgust. These findings are in line with the hypothesis of a specific relationship between disgust and at least some kinds of obsessive symptoms.
Ali Rasti, Jafar Hasani,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2010)

The goal of this research was an investigation into the implicit and explicit memory bias against negative emotional information processing in adolescents with high and low trait anxiety. To do so, 2 adolescent groups of twenty with high trait (n=20) and low trait (n=20) were selected from a large pole of adolescents using Spielbergr’s State-Trait Anxiety inventory for Children (STAI-C). Following the two groups were matched in terms of variables including age, sex,and education level, Explicit Memory Test(EMT) and Implicit Memory Test(IMT),completing word stems, were used to assess the subjects. The stimulants, emotional items, included two series of threatening and neutral words in EXP and a set of ambiguous words. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between high trait and low trait anxiety groups in terms of subject sensitivity and bias against threatening and neutral stimulants. However, high trait group had completed words stems more than low trait group in implicit memory test. These results indicated the presence of implicit memory bias in high trait group. Generally, the results of the present research are in accord with other researches and support the principles governing memory bias and trait anxiety. 
Farhad Jokar, Fereydoon Yaryari, Maryam Ghasemi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2010)

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of therapeutic touch and muscle relaxation on trait and state anxiety in Tarbiat Moallem University’s students, Tehran. Population of the study included all the students of this university in the academic year 2007-2008.A sample of 40students was selected through simple random sampling. Based on Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI),the subjects were put into four groups of ten: Therapeutic touch group, muscle relaxation group, anxious control group and normal group control. In this study which was a quasi-experimental research, pretest-posttest, control group design was used. To analyze and to test the hypotheses of the study, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used. The findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of state and trait anxiety. Therefore, muscle relaxation can be used to decrease the anxiety, since the results of the study indicated that muscle relaxation method can have an effective role in decreasing state and trait anxiety.  
Mehdi Reza Sarafraz, Hadi Bahrami Ehsan, Ali Reza Zarandi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2011)

The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between two holistic constructs of self-awareness, mindfulness and integrative self-knowledge, and their associations with physical, psychological, social and spiritual health problem. To do so, 249 Iranian university students,170 women and 79men,completed following scales: Mindfulness Attention Awareness (Brown & Ryan, 2003), Integrative Self-Knowledge (Ghorbani, Watson & Hargis, 2008), Biopsychosociospiritual inventory (Katerndahl& Oyiriaru, 2007), and Depression Anxiety Stress (Lovibond&Lovibond, 1995). The data showed that these two constructs of self-awareness are negatively associated with all aspects of health. The integrative self-knowledge also predicted all measures of health that are beyond the mindfulness. These results point toward the integrative and temporal nature of self- awareness processes and suggest a need for studying the direction and nature of relation between Self-awareness and health.
Neda Nazarboland, Parviz Azadfallah, Ali Fathi Ashtiani, Hasan Ashayeri,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2011)

This study investigated the degree of cortical arousal of the forehead during working memory performance in personality dimension of anxiety. Based on Gray’s definition of personality dimension of anxiety, in a pseudo-empirical study a sample of female students (n=793) aged from 18 to 28 years old completed Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Carver and White’s Approach/Avoidance scale. 15 subjects whose scores were simultaneously in the upper distribution of Neuroticism and lower distribution of Extraversion (N+E-) were selected as high trait anxiety group (Anx+), and low trait anxiety group (Anx-) consisted of 15 subjects with higher scores of Extraversion and lower scores of Neuroticism (N-E+). Then their EEG was taken in baseline mode and while performing working memory task. Total scores in 1-back working memory task were taken as the indicator of working memory performance and EEG alpha oscillation during 1-back task was taken as cortical arousal index. Data were analyzed using T-test for independent samples. Results revealed that high trait anxious subjects showed more arousability in their right and left cortex of forehead during working memory performance, while their performance in working memory tasks was impaired in comparison with low trait anxious group. These Results supported Processing Efficiency Theory, which means although high trait anxious individuals employed higher mental effort during executive functions, their processing efficiency was impaired.
Shahram Mohammadkhani, Masaud Zafarpanahi‎,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2011)

Pathological Internet use, or internet addiction, is an emerging phenomenon that has got substantial attention by the researchers in the recent years. This study investigated the mediating role of metacognitive beliefs in the relationship between the negative emotions and internet addiction among the university students. A sample of 220 university students completed Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Metacognitive beliefs Questionnaire, and Internet Addiction Test. When it came to analyzing the data, the hypothesized mediating model was analyzed by the structural equation modeling. All dimensions of metacognitive beliefs were found to be positively and significantly correlated with the Pathological Internet use. Further, Positive and significant correlations were also observed between Pathological Internet use and negative emotions. The results of the structural equation modeling supported the hypothesis that the relationship between negative emotions and Pathological Internet use was mediated by metacognitive beliefs. Results of this study supported the effectiveness of metacognitive theory in Pathological Internet use ,and they could provide better understanding of the Pathological Internet use.
Mojgan Khodapanah, Alireza Moradi, Mojdeh Khodapanah,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2011)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of BATD on the treatment of obese women with depression and anxiety. In this study, 45 obese women (45 patients with a BMI equal to or greater than kg/m2 30) suffering from depression and anxiety were divided randomly into three groups of fifteen. All members of these groups were matched in terms of age, sex, education level and BMI. Research tools of this study included Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-trait Anxiety Inventory,and treatment package of BATD. After taking a pre-test, the experiment group underwent 10 sessions of BATD, the regimen group received the treatment concerning the reduction of weight, and the third group received no treatment. After the termination of these interventions, the subjects took a post-test. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that behavioral activation treatment for depression(BATD) was effective in reducing the anxiety and depression symptoms of the patients with obesity. One of the probable reasons for the effectiveness of BATD, the increase of the level of pleasant, important activities and the promising events in the patient’s life can be mentioned. Finally, the results of this study are consistent with the results of other research.
Mahnaz Shahgholian, Parviz Azad –falah‎, Ali ‏ Fathi Ashtiani‏,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (3-2012)

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the metacognitive processes regard to the dimensions of anxiety and impulsivity. First, the sample of the study, 600 female students of Tarbiat Modares University, completed the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Then, based on the subjects’ score in lie scale and their extreme scores in extraversion and neuroticism dimensions, 4 groups (15 subjects in each group) consisting of high anxiety (Anx+), low anxiety (Anx-), high impulsivity (Imp+) and low impulsivity (Imp-) subjects were selected, and completed Stroop and Wisconsin tests. The results indicated that the quality of metacognitive process and the executive functions similar to it were better in Anx- group in comparison to Anx+ group and in Imp- group in comparison to Imp+ group. Generally speaking, the results of this study highlight the effect of anxiety and impulsivity on metacognitive processes.
Khodabakhsh Ahmadi, Mahdi Sheikh, Hasan Sarabandi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (12-2012)

This study has been carried out with the aim of studying and recognizing the role of attachment to God in Resilience and mental health of the parents of trainable mentally retarded children. In this descriptive, correlational research performed in 2010, 296 parents of trainable mentally retarded children were selected based on Morgan table and through stratified random sampling from the desired population and were then investigated. To collect the data three questionnaires were used: attachment to God, resiliency and checklist of behavioral signs. Analysis of the data through correlation coefficient and regression analysis showed that there was a positive meaningful relationship between secure attachment to God and resilience and mental health. Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between anxious, inevitable attachment to God and resilience and mental health. Also the result of regression analysis showed that the variable secure attachment to God can explain 70 percent of the variable resilience. Secure attachment to God had a significant positive relationship with resilience and mental health, and anxious and inevitable attachment to God had a significant negative relationship with resilience and mental health. Therefore it is likely to improve the individuals’ mental health by changing the quality of their attachment to God.  
Sima Alemi, Alireza Moradi, Arash Jonabian,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (12-2012)

According to the last edition of APA (DSM-IV-TR), the cancer has been known as a traumatic stress that can affect on Psychological and cognitive health in spouses as a caregiver and might show the signs of PTSD. Attention to this aspect is very important for treatment in cancer patients. This study examined the effect of cancer (during treatment and after treatment) on the emotional performance (anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder) and cognitive performance (autobiographical memory) on their spouses. 120 individuals in 3 groups (spouses of cancer patients (during treatment), spouses of cancer patients (after treatment) and the healthy group), that have been matched in sex age and intelligence attend to the research. The instruments of the research include the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), the Persian versions of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) and the Autobiographical Memory Inventory (AMI). Results indicated that no significant difference in depression was found between all three groups but the target group (during treatment) showed more psychological distress than the control group. Both of target groups indicated no significant difference in PTSD at all and control group showed higher levels of episodic specificity, episodic memory and autobiographical memory scores than the other groups. The findings are discussed in terms of the proposed theory about interaction of emotion and cognition, especially PTSD
Mojgan Agah Heris, Ahmad Alipour, Neda Golchin,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2012)

This research was carried out to investigate the differences between students` body mass index (BMI) and eating behaviors in various levels of social physique anxiety (SPA). Therefore, of the Students of Payam Noor University in Garmsar, Sharood and Semnan cities, the cities of Semnan Province, 357 subjects (290 girls and 67 boys) were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling method. All participants then completed three factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) and social physique anxiety (SPA) scale in one session. Also their Weight and BMI were measured by body composition instrument. Following the data collection, data analysis by ANOVA revealed that the BMI and eating behaviors have significant differences in different levels of SPA. Furthermore, the results showed that in higher levels of SPA there were more dysfunctional eating behaviors and BMI. These findings implied that harmful or threatening cognitive appraisals triggered by SPA could activate rampant eating behaviors, and could increase perceived hunger.
Fahimeh Ghahvehchi., Ali Fathi-Ashtiani, Parviz Azadfallah,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2012)

study was conducted to examine the relationship between meta cognitive beliefs
and female students’ test anxiety coping styles by considering the role of ambivalent attachment. In a correlative study, 202 female students in the third grade of Yazd’s
middle school were selected by random cluster sampling and then completed the
Spielberger Anxiety questionnaire, Meta cognitive Beliefs
Questionnaire and Collins and Raid attachment questionnaire. Pearson's correlation test and regression
analysis were used to analyze the data. The present study showed that there was a positive relationship between
test anxiety and cognitive beliefs, avoidant coping style, emotional-based coping style and ambivalent attachment. Also there was direct and significant relationship between meta cognitive beliefs and
avoidant coping style, issue-oriented
copying style, emotional-based coping style and ambivalent
attachment. Emotional coping styles were also
positively and significantly oriented with ambivalent attachment. Results of the step by step regression analysis
showed that meta cognitive beliefs explained   27% of the variance the test anxiety by
themselves, while the coping style along with meta cognitive
beliefs explained approximately 32% of the variance of test anxiety and if
ambivalent attachment added to meta cognitive beliefs and
coping style, 34% of the variance of test anxiety can be explained
approximately. Due to the effectiveness of the proper use of coping styles in dealing with the test anxiety, the
necessary trainings in this area can prevent
the students from being challenged by the test anxiety which could have many
negative effects on their performance. Also parents as
those having a role in the formation of their children’s attachment should
undergo necessary training.
Hossein Zare, Zahra Solgi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2012)

The present study investigated the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depression, anxiety and stress in students through using descriptive correlational research method. To do so , throughrandom cluster sampling, 235 students(102 boys and 133 girls) of Payame Noor University with the average age of 23/31 and a standard deviation of  2/53 were selected and then completed cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ) and depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21). Data was analyzed by using multivariate analysis of variance and correlation matrix. Results indicated a negative relationship between depression and positive refocusing, between planning and positive reappraisal. Moreover, there was a positive relationship between depression, anxiety, stress and all of the maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies (other blame, self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing and acceptance). Among the components of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was no significant difference between male and female students, except rumination. There was also no difference between male and female students in depression, anxiety and stress. Considering the above mentioned results, it seems that cognitive emotion regulation training focused on positive refocusing, planning and positive reappraisal is very essential to enhance the physical, mental and social health of students
Somayeh Kazemian, Masoomeh Esmaeeli,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2013)

This study was conducted to assess the influence of the self-differentiation training on the reduction of the degree of anxiety in girl students of divorced parents. Population of the study incorporated high school girl students of divorces parents in 6th district of Tehran city. Considering this, of the high schools of the 6th district of Tehran city, a school was selected randomly and a list of its students with divorced parents was provided. Then, 16 students were selected randomly and were put into two groups of eight and completed Cattle anxiety inventory and self-differentiation questionnaire. Then, 45-minutes sessions (two sessions in one week) was performed in the experimental group .In this study, pretest, posttest with control group design was used and the data was analyzed through multivariable analysis of variance. Results of the study showed that self-differentiation training was effective in the reduction of the anxiety of students with divorce parents with 95 percent of assurance. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested to the counselors and psychologists to use the group self-differentiation training as a useful method for the treatment of students’ anxiety.
M, Amani, E, Shiri, M, Valipoor, V, Shiri,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (12-2013)

Present research studied the role of anxiety sensitivity and cognitive emotion regulation in the anxiety and depression. At first, of 300 individuals who were volunteer to participate in the study, on basis of their score on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, 41 individuals who had one standard deviation above the mean in DASS depression component were put in the depressed group, 52 individuals who had one standard deviation above the mean in DASS anxiety component were put in the anxious group, and 60 individuals who had not high scores were casually put in the normal group. Then they completedanxiety sensitivity index andshort form ofcognitive emotion regulation questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and stepwise discriminant analysis. Results showed that for the classification of the individuals in each group, anxiety sensitivity, positive reappraisal, positive refocusing, catastrophication, self-blame and others blaming had significant predicting contribution. The anxiety sensitivity was the strongest predicting variable for the membership of the individuals in the groups. In sum, 59.5% of the individuals have been placed correctly in the groups. These results showed that anxiety sensitivity and cognitive emotion regulation ,as two important factors, had important role in psychopathology of depression and anxiety and so special focus should be put on them at the time of psychotherapy.
K, Mirzaie, M. H. Abdollahi, M, Shahgholian,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (3-2014)

This study aimed at investigating the relationship between metacognitive beliefs, social anxiety and shyness considering the mediating role of emotion regulation. 700 high school students completed the Stanford Shyness and Social Anxiety questionnaires. According to the extreme scores in the scales, 110 subjects were selected as shy individuals and 46 subjects were selected as individuals with the social anxiety disorder. To distinguish the shy people with/without symptoms of social anxiety, the SPIN were performed on shy sample again and based on the extreme scores, there were 45 subjects with social anxiety symptoms and 60 subjects without social anxiety symptoms. 43 subjects in all three groups completed Emotion Regulation and Metacognitive Beliefs questionnaires. The results showed significant relationship between metacognitive beliefs, emotion regulationstrategies and social anxiety and shyness with/without symptoms of social anxiety. There was a significant relationship between metacognitive beliefs and suppression in social anxiety sample and between metacognitive beliefs and cognitive reappraisal in the shy group with symptoms but there was no significant relationship in shy group without symptoms. Regression analysis showed that some components if metacognitive beliefs including negative beliefs and thought control through suppression could predict the social anxiety better and those components of positive belief and cognitive assurance through cognitive reappraisal could predict the shyness with the symptoms of social anxiety. The results showed that the metacognitive beliefs could predict the shyness without the symptoms of anxiety through the mediation of emotion regulation.
Mahboobeh, Esmaili, Alireza Moradi, Abbas, Tavallai,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (6-2014)

The present research has been conducted to study the diagnostic role of autobiographical memory, attachment and identity in the patients with the post-traumatic stress and generalized anxiety disorders. The selected samples in this causal-comparative study included 24 patients suffering from the post-traumatic stress disorder, 20 suffering from the generalized anxiety disorder and 32 normal people in similar ages and social conditions. They were tested and interviewed during two sessions after the researcher has explained them the necessary details and have got their consent. Beck’s depression inventory, Beck’s anxiety inventory, the revised event-effect scale, the attachment scale, the identity assessment scale, the autobiographical memory interview and the autobiographical memory test were used to achieve the goal of this research. The results revealed that healthy people’s performance was better than the performance of those suffering from PTSD in all the subscales of autobiographical memory in the three different periods of childhood, adulthood and the recent past and both in the semantic and episodic sections. Furthermore, the results of the autobiographical memory test indicated a reduction in PTSD suffering patients’ specific memory in comparison to the people in the normal group. Also GAD suffering people’s performance was better than that of PTSD suffering ones only in the subscale of adulthood events. The coupled comparison of the groups showed that the average secure attachment style in the healthy group was significantly higher than that of the people in the GAD group however, the average score is lower in this group than the other two patient ones in terms of insecure anxiety. The analytical-diagnostic results also showed that 69.7 percent of people in these three groups have been accurately placed in their groups.

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