Volume 10, Issue 37 (Fall 2021 2021)                   Serd 2021, 10(37): 153-174 | Back to browse issues page

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Faraji Sabokbar H, Darban Astaneh A, Akhavan Heydari K, Modanlou Jouybari M, Khatami H. Good Governance Facilitating Role for Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Rural Areas Case: Gomishan County. Serd. 2021; 10 (37) :153-174
URL: http://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3739-en.html
1- Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2- Assistant Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
3- PhD graduate in Geography and Rural Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran , k_heidari@isc.co.ir
4- Postdoctoral Researcher in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran and Iran National Science Foundation, Tehran, Iran
5- Master graduate in Environmental Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (385 Views)
Introduction
Good governance is one of the most important and recent concepts that has been addressed in the development literature since the 1980s. A good rural governance is one of the basic requirements for achieving sustainable development. Rural entrepreneurship seeks to find the right combination of resources for economic activities to maximize profits. Moreover, rural entrepreneurs seek innovation and creativity in agricultural and non-agricultural activities, land use and optimal, diverse and innovative resource utilization for rural development. However, the development of businesses and rural entrepreneurship will not be possible without the entrepreneurial support of rural governance. Good rural governance is the implementation of rural policies in line with the people's interest and compatible with national, regional and local interests. It plays an important role in shaping regulation, and promoting and facilitating entrepreneurship for entrepreneurs. Efforts by public and private institutions at the societal level can reduce the constraints of entrepreneurship by reducing opportunity costs for new businesses. The word entrepreneurship comes from a French word meaning commitment and implies the process of creating value through the formation of a unique set of resources in order to take advantage of opportunities.

Methodology
The present research is applied and developmental in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. Data collection has been done in both filed study and desk research.  The statistical population of this study is households living in rural areas of Gomishan County which consists of 5111 households. The unit of analysis is divided in three groups of households in the northern and eastern and western zones of Gomishan. In this study, 263 samples are taken in a systematic random sampling method using Cochran's formula. This study analyzed data in a multidisciplinary decision-making approach using WASPAS method and Interpretive structural modeling (ISM), which identifies and determines the relationships between 31 factors. These are extracted from interviews with experts as well as previous studies on good governance and entrepreneurship.

Discussion and conclusion
In the ISM graph, the factor of participation and legitimacy is at the lowest level of the good governance indicator in facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities, so these variables should be prioritized. The factor of efficiency and effectiveness also acts as a basis in the second level. The factors of consensus oriented, equity and inclusiveness are in the third level, and the factors of transparency and responsiveness are in the fourth level, and the factors of accountability are in the fifth level. In examining the impact and dependency of the variables of effectiveness and efficiency, consensus oriented and legitimacy are more influenced by other factors and from a systemic dependent element. In other words, many factors are involved in creating these elements and they can be less likely to cause the other variables. The variables of equity and inclusiveness are in the group of independent (autonomous) variables that have weak drive and dependence. These variables are relatively unconnected to the system and have high drive and low dependence. Transparency, accountability and participation are among the major effective variables of good governance in facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities. Basically, variables that have high impact power are called major variables. These variables fall into one of two groups of independent or linkage variables. Accountability is one of the linkage variables and has a high drive power and dependence. On the solution of the linear model in the best-worst method, participation variable with a weight of 0.401 were ranked first, as the most important index and accountability variable with a weight of 0.024 ranked eight, the least important indicator of good governance in facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities. The adaptability rate is at an acceptable level of 0.013. Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment is a new technique with high effectiveness and efficiency in the decision-making process. This technique is a combination of weighted sum model and weighted linear combination that make the output of the model very accurate. The findings show that in Gomishan County in terms of the effect of good governance factor facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities, the first, second and third ranks are the villages of the eastern area with a value of 3.365, the villages of the western area with a value of 3.229, and the villages of the northern area with a value of 3.117, respectively.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2021/12/15 | Accepted: 2021/12/1

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