Volume 11, Issue 42 (winter 2023 2023)                   2023, 11(42): 130-107 | Back to browse issues page

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Khosravi Zo A, Ghasemi M. Investigating the impact of covid-19 on the economy of tourism destination villages(Case Study: Kalat-Naderi County). SPACE ECONOMY & RURAL DEVELOPMENT 2023; 11 (42) :130-107
URL: http://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3882-en.html
1- Master of Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2- Assistant Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. , magh30@um.ac.ir
Abstract:   (954 Views)
Introduction
In rural areas, Covid-19 has, directly and indirectly, affected all aspects of rural society in the medium and short term. Thus, the economy of the tourist destination villages of Kalat county, which has a lot of dependence on tourism, has faced a severe recession due to the impact of Covid-19 and has been severely damaged. In general, based on the initial exploratory studies of the economy, these tourist destinations have faced the following problems:
A) Decrease in tourism demand: Due to the impact of Covid-19, the number of tourists entering the rural tourism destinations of Kalat county has decreased significantly. The average annual number of tourists in Ortakand village has decreased from 200 thousand people to 10 thousand people, in Baba Ramzan village from 20 thousand people to 4 thousand people, and in Abgarm village, from 40 thousand people to less than 20 thousand people after the outbreak of Covid-19 which has created many problems for the economy of these villages. 
B) Decrease in the income of the tourism sector: Due to the decrease in tourism demand, we are witnessing a decrease in money coming to tourism destinations and a decrease in the direct and indirect income of activists of the tourism market in the villages of tourism destinations, so that in the village of Ortakand, the income of those working in the tourism sector has decreased by about 90%. Before Covid-19, the people of this village earned money by selling livestock, and agricultural and horticultural products, as well as through supermarkets and renting resorts to tourists. Also, before the outbreak of Covid-19 in Baba Ramzan village, 90% of dairy products, 80% of handicraft products of the villagers, as well as other products of the village such as gardens, agriculture, livestock, fisheries, medicinal plants and rice were bought by tourists, but after the outbreak of Covid 19, The income that the people of this village earned from the sale of these products has decreased by 85-90 percent. 
C) Increase in unemployment: The decrease in tourism demand has caused a decrease in job opportunities in tourism destinations and the unemployment of many tourism activists in rural areas. After covid-19, those villagers who have been active in the tourism sector, such as eco-tourism resorts, guest houses, renting beds and gazebos, selling agricultural, garden, livestock, dairy products etc., due to the lack of tourists, have faced unemployment. So 80% of people in Ortakand village, 30% in Baba Ramzan village and 20% in Abgarm village have become unemployed due to the spread of Covid-19.
D) Inefficiency of investments: After Covid-19, due to the decrease and absence of tourists, the investments that some people in these villages had made in the tourism sector, such as eco-tourism resorts, beds and gazebos, supermarkets, etc., which has often been by obtaining facilities, but has remained without returns, which, in addition to the problem of unemployment, has made it difficult for these people to repay these facilities.
According to these, the research question is raised as follows: To what extent has the spread of Covid 19 affected the economy of the tourism target villages of Kalat County?

 Methodology
The research method is descriptive-analytical and of the type of applied-developmental research. In this study, eight tourism destination villages in Kalat Naderi County were identified and studied with the help of field and documentary studies. The impact of Covid-19 on the economy of tourism destination villages was quantified based on the Likert scale and under the three components of employment, investment and income with the help of 19 indicators. The research tool was completed with the help of 22 experts from tourism destination villages. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using 19 indicators, and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was favorable with a value of 0.9.

Discussion and conclusion
With the spread of Covid-19, rural tourism destinations have faced many economic problems. Since these villages get a large part of their income from the tourism sector, they faced unemployment after the spread of Covid-19, and finally, the economy of these villages faced stagnation. According to the obtained results, it can be said that Covid-19 has had many negative effects on the economy of tourist villages. The results showed that the average impact of Covid-19 on the economy of tourist destination villages was 3.68 on the Likert scale. Also, the impact of Covid-19 on income, with an average of 3.8, is higher than on investment, with 3.54 and employment, with 3.53. Obviously, the income from the tourism sector has decreased greatly due to the sharp decrease in the number of tourists. Also, the average impact of Covid-19 on the economy of all the studied tourism target villages was higher than 3. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the average effects of Covid-19 on the economy of the studied villages after the outbreak of Covid-19 compared to before, and the average of the investigated variables has decreased significantly after Covid-19. So that in the villages of tourism destinations, there has been a decrease of 19,941 tourists per year compared to before the outbreak of Covid-19. This situation has caused an average decrease of 31 direct businesses and 44 indirect businesses active in tourism, 47 direct and 77 indirect employees and 1.5 eco-tourism resorts compared to before the outbreak of Covid-19 in each of the tourism destination villages.

 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2022/07/22 | Accepted: 2022/11/11

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